3rd MC and 3rd Technical Meeting - Valencia, Spain, September 19-22

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TD Title

TD Abstract


TD(22)03002Marek Simka, Ladislav PolakOn the RSSI-Based Indoor Localization Employing LoRa in the 2.4GHz ISM BandDemand for systems and technologies ensuring indoor localization or tracking of an object with high and stable accuracy is continuously increasing. Nowadays, there are exist several wireless technologies, for instance Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, which can be employed for indoor positioning. In the future, Long Range (LoRa), originally developed for long range communication with high link budget, can extend the family of these technologies. This paper focuses on the LoRa technology and its employing in the licence free 2.4,GHz band for Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) based indoor localization. To measure and collect the values of RSSI, a simple measurement setup is proposed. The RSSI values are used to calculate the position of an object according to the principle of trilateration. Measurements are conducted in three different indoor environments for different signal configurations of LoRa. The recorded dataset is available online for future research purposes. The results, analysed in terms of localization accuracy, revealed good performance of LoRa. However, this performance is highly depending on the signal configuration of LoRa and on the position of nodes.WG1,WG2,HA1
TD(22)03003Michał Sybis, Paweł Sroka, Adrian KliksDatabase Supported Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme for Intra-platoon CommunicationsHigh reliability of wireless communications is a rudimentary requirement for guaranteeing safe autonomous driving. This paper discusses the performance of communications between cars within autonomous platoons, with the application of a proposed database-supported successive interference cancellation (SIC) algorithm. By assumption, it utilizes the knowledge on other existing interfering transmissions (such as pre-entered information on digital television transmissions stored in the road-side database) to re-move the interfering signal at the receiver side. It is shown that this approach improves the bit error rate, and in turn – the reliability of intra-platoon transmission. The proposed solution is evaluated using link-level extensive computer simulations.WG2,VT2
TD(22)03004Mate Boban, Vittorio Degli Esposti, Diego Dupleich, Wei Fan, Marco Di Renzo, Joonas KokkoniemiCOST INTERACT Working Group 1 (Radio Channels): Key Challenges and Initial DirectionsA comprehensive understanding of the radio channel is a prerequisite for designing efficient wireless communication systems. Next generation wireless systems are expected to include both new technologies — e.g., reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS), integrated sensing and communication — and new frequency bands — in particular, above 100 GHz. These new technologies and bands will require a paradigm shift in radio channel measurement and characterization. To that end, we explore the ongoing and planned activities that COST INTERACT Working Group 1 (WG1) has been carrying out. In particular, we describe the position of WG1 as originally mandated by COST INTERACT, elaborated further by the addition of sub-WGs on RIS and mmWave and THz sounding. Next, we identify the key challenges faced by WG1 and the two sub-WGs and describe the first steps taken in order to address those challenges. Finally, we give an outlook for the activities that need to be carried out in order to ensure the key output from WG1: definition of a comprehensive channel modeling framework that encompasses new scenarios and technologies that will be included in future wireless communications systems.WG1
TD(22)03005Faruk Pasic, Stefan Pratschner, Markus Rupp and Christoph F. MecklenbräukerPilot-Aided Channel Estimation Scheme for NR-V2X Speed Emulation TechniqueGrowing intelligent transportation systems demand a vehicular communication technology that can satisfy high requirements in terms of data rates, latency, reliability and number of connected devices. To evaluate the performance of such communication technology, real-world measurements are required for various channel conditions. Since vehicular measurement campaigns are expensive and time-consuming, a high-mobility environment poses enormous challenges for performance measurements. Fortunately, using the existing method of time-stretching the transmit signals, such experiments can be emulated through measurements at a single lower velocity by inducing effects caused by higher velocities. Unfortunately, there is the problem of different channel estimation quality between the time-stretched and the original system. To ensure that the technique gives accurate results in practical systems, we adapt the pilot-based channel estimation scheme within the existing time-stretching technique.WG1,WG2,VT2
TD(22)03006A.K. Skrivervik, M. Gao, Z. SipusIn Body propagation: the influence of the antennaWireless Communication with an implanted sensor represents a huge challenge, for three reasons: first, an implant is either injectable, ingestible or implantable, which means in any case it has to be physically small. This implies that the antenna used for the link has to be highly miniaturized. Second, biological tissues are very lossy, and will thus largely attenuate any wireless signal having to pass through them.  Finally, as the implant is placed in a living host, levels of powers that may be used for a wireless link are heavily limited by regulations, in order to protect the host from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Thus, it is of paramount importance that such wireless linked are designed in a way achieving the best possible efficiency in the transmission. To this aim, good propagation models for electromagnetic fields through biological tissues are required. They should be precise enough to enable a good link budget at the planning stage of a project, and simple enough to enable an easy use. One of the major difficulties in establishing such models is that in the case of wireless communication with a device located in a lossy medium, it is not always possible to decouple the channel (i.e. the propagation in the medium) from the antenna characteristics, as the near field generated by the antenna can couple to the medium through the losses. In this presentation, the coupling between antenna near-field and a lossy host body will be analyzed using a simple canonical host phantom. First approximate closed form expressions will be presented to account for these lossesWG1,VT1
TD(22)03009Simona Valbonesi, Paolo GraziosoRisk communication and risk perception in 5G and Beyond 5G scenariosThe debate on electromagnetic field effects is not a new phenomenon, but it dates back to more than one century ago, when electricity began to be used. The advent of mobile radio networks a few decades ago further spurred this controversy, exacerbating it in some cases. Normally, citizens tend to complain about the installation of new base stations, especially when they are located close to their home, in spite of the absence of any scientific evidence of causal correlation between exposure levels respecting the limits in force and serious diseases such as cancer. The dispute recently reached new peaks, especially in the social media, with the deployment of 5G technology, adding to the traditional topics of dispute also new themes such as network densification and the use of millimetre wave frequencies. Network densification is a key factor for 5G networks development, but a widespread belief within the general public is that the increase in the number of base stations would imply a corresponding increase in field exposure in spite of the fact that several studies carried out in different countries show that network densification does not lead to an increase in exposure levels; on the contrary, the average field exposure does not change for the majority of population (about 90% in case of a uniform distribution of population on the territory), while exposure sharply decreases in locations close to the base stations when network density increases. As far as millimetre waves are concerned, numerical analyses show that fields at frequencies of 26 GHz and above don’t penetrate deeply into body tissues. Unfortunately, for the time being there is not enough scientific literature about possible effects of millimetre wave fields, and this has been recognised as a cognitive gap to be filled as soon as possible. The work here presented performs an analysis of the state-of-the-art of knowledge about radiofrequency electromagnetic field effects, in particular with respect to new frequency bands (3.5 and 26 GHz) end to the new transmission techniques (adaptive antennas, beamforming); aim of this work is to investigate the correct communication means that should be adopted by the scientific community, by politicians and policy makers, and by media when informing citizens, and interacting with them, on a topic still characterised by a high risk perception. Sub-VT1
TD(22)03010Juan Pascual-García, Lorenzo Rubio, Vicent M. Rodrigo Peñarrocha, Leandro Juan-Llácer,, José-María Molina-García-Pardo, Concepción Sanchis-Borras, and Juan ReigWireless Channel Analysis between 25 and 40 GHz in an Intra-Wagon Environment for 5G using a Ray-Tracing toolMetro and railway systems are one of the most used transportation systems for people in almost all countries. Nevertheless, the access to high throughput wireless services is still very limited inside the wagons (cars). A deep analysis of the wireless channel inside wagons is needed to deploy new efficient and high throughput networks as the ones provided by fifth-generation (5G) systems. Although several works have analyzed the intra-wagon channel, some limitations are usually present: only certain user equipment-access point situations were considered, the number of studied propagation mechanisms was limited, and only some channel parameters were extracted. For these reasons, in this work the wireless channel in an intra-wagon environment is thoroughly analyzed using simulations performed with a ray-tracing tool calibrated and validated with wideband measurements. Thanks to the accurate ray-tracing tool the main replicas are identified in different typical user equipment-access point positions; the contribution of each propagation mechanism to the total power is extracted; and the angular spread in azimuth and elevation for the direction of arrival and departure are obtained. This analysis is performed in the frequency range from 25 to 40 GHz, where spectrum for several 5G bands has been already allocated.WG1
TD(22)03011Simona Valbonesi and Paolo GraziosoCharacterisation of millimetre wave field propagation in the cranial capsuleThe deployment of 5G technology using the 26 GHz band, and the foreseen usage of higher frequency bands in future releases of 5G and in future 6G networks, that will use frequencies above 100 GHz and up to 200 GHz and above, is causing widespread worries among citizens about possible adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. The main reason for such an increased concern probably lies in the fact that these high frequencies have never been used before in terrestrial mobile communication networks. As a matter of fact, there are not many studies specifically targeting these frequency bands, and various international scientific bodies such as ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection), BEMS (Bioelectromagnetics Society) and SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks) identified the biological effects of millimetre wave electromagnetic fields as one of the cognitive gaps to focus on in the near future. In this paper we present a numerical analysis aimed at characterising various types of biological tissues from the electromagnetic point of view, addressing the modalities of propagation in layered tissues by means of geometrical optics rules on reflection and absorption in non-conductive materials. To this aim, we considered the structural characteristics of different tissues, that depend on cellular architectures, on the presence of membranes and, above all, on the water content. Therefore, the focus of the work here presented is on the evaluation of electrical fields in tissues within the cranial capsule as a function of the incident field frequency, taking into account transmission and reflection at the interface between tissue layers with different electromagnetic characteristics. The computation was performed in the parietal area of human skull, for both horizontal and vertical polarisations and for frequencies varying from 26 GHz to 100 GHz. Results show that even at 26 GHz a fraction of the electrical field ranging from 84% to 91% is blocked by the scalp, which constitutes the outer barrier against external agents; this fraction increases with the frequency and reaches values between 96% and 97% at 100 GHz, with remarkable differences between horizontal and vertical polarisation. The field that reaches the deep brain, after absorptions and reflections in the seven biological layers that cover it, is of the order of 10-11 V/m at 26 GHz and of 10-32 V/m at 100 GHz: such values are practically negligible in terms of heating effects. More in detail, the investigation here presented shows that at 26 GHz field is practically blocked by the tissues that precede the meninges (scalp, connective tissue, and two layers of bones, namely cortical bone and spongy bone), while at 100 GHz the field does not reach beyond the connective tissue located directly underlying the scalp. Therefore, as a conclusion we may state that some expressions recurring on media, such as “the 26 GHz field might cook one’s brain”, have no scientific basis.VT1,Sub-VT1
TD(22)03012Minseok Kim, Riku Takahashi, Kosuke Shibata, Anirban GhoshDevelopment and Verification of 300-GHz Double-Directional Channel SounderThis paper describes the 300-GHz channel sounder developed for Beyond 5G radio access systems. It also presents the results of double-directional channel measurements in a conference room environment to validate the developed system. The measurement results show that several dominant multipath components existed, and the angles of departure and arrival (AoD and AoA) were also in good agreement with those obtained by the previous millimeter-wave measurements.Sub-WG1
TD(22)03013Yang Miao, François Quitin, Alister Burr, Ana Garcia ArmadaChallenges in INTERACT WG2: Signal Processing and LocalisationThis document is a summary of the main challenges being targeted and the first paths followed by the research activities of WG2. The goal of WG2 is to design novel physical layer technologies by combining the data information from statistical learning with the theoretical knowledge of the transmitted signal structure. Encoders for short block lengths, channel estimation schemes, beamforming and (massive) MIMO processing in sub-6-GHz and mmWave bands will be considered. The WG aims also at designing new positioning and localization techniques.WG2
TD(22)03014Alister Burr and Sumaila MahamaOutage probability for physical-layer network codingIn previous work we considered a two-way relay network with overhearing for scenarios such as emergencies where base stations and other fixed infrastructure is unavailable, and evaluated average BERs in various forms of fading, using various forms of physical layer network coding (PNC).  In this paper we evaluate outage probability for such a network, using analytical methods and approximations.  This makes it easier to distinguish and compare the performance of different forms of PNC, and to evaluate the effect of different fading characteristics in the channel.  We also consider the case where a relay fully decodes both sources, as a special case of PNC.WG2
TD(22)03016Vasile Bota, Mihaly VargaTheoretical Performance Analysis of a HARQ Algorithm with Limited IR  that Uses Rateless and FEC CodingThis paper presents a theoretical analysis of performance provided by a generic Incremental Redundancy (IR) HARQ algorithm which uses rateless and FEC coding to recover a message composed of m data blocks, each of them containing k bits. The limited IR is obtained by providing additional rateless symbols in q retransmissions at most, so that the total number of transmitted symbols would not exceed 2×m. It derives the expressions of the performance metrics, namely the message non-recovery probability pNR, the average number of rounds Aavg needed to ensure a target pNR-t, the average spectral efficiency b and the average coding rates, in an OFDMA generic structure over a Rayleigh block-faded channel. The impacts of the algorithm’s parameters, i.e., the number Na of rateless symbols sent in the initial round, the maximum number of retransmissions and the FEC code’s coding rate Rc, upon performance are evaluated by the numerical results. These results show that the algorithm could ensure small pNR-t values at low SNRs with a small average number of attempts, by changing adaptively the algorithm’s parameters according to the channel’s current SNR.WG2
TD(22)03017Yejian Lyu, Zhiqiang Yuan, Mengting Li, Allan Wainaina Mbugua, Pekka Kyösti, and Wei FanEnabling Long-Range Large-Scale Channel Sounding at Sub-THz Bands: Virtual Array and Radio-Over-Fiber ConceptsSub-Terahertz (sub-THz) (i.e., 100-300 GHz) communication is envisaged as one of the key building blocks for future communication systems due to its vast unexploited bandwidth. Knowledge of the radio channel characteristics is key to the design and development of new radio systems and air interfaces. Reliable channel sounding is essential to build accurate and realistic channel models. Virtual antenna array (VAA) has been a popular channel sounding strategy to obtain accurate directional characterization due to its low-cost and simple system implementation. However, this concept has not yet been realized for sub-THz bands in the state-of-the-art works due to the difficulty in accurate phase control. The measurement range has been rather limited at sub-THz due to significant signal loss compared to microwave or millimeter-wave frequencies. In this paper, we focus on vector network analyzer (VNA)-based channel sounders, highlighting frequency extension with sub-THz frequency extenders, measurement range extension with radio-over-fiber (RoF) schemes, and angular resolution improvement by VAA implementation with phase-compensation scheme. These techniques enable and enhance sub-THz channel characterization. The performance of the proposed long-range phase-compensated sounder is also experimentally demonstrated by the VAA-based channel measurements at 100 GHz in an indoor scenario.WG1,Sub-WG1
TD(22)03018Xuesong Cai, Meifang Zhu, Aleksei Fedorov, Fredrik TufvessonEnhanced-EADF for the Characterization of Large-Scale Antenna ArraysMassive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a key technique for fifth-generation (5G) and beyond communications. Therefore, accurately characterizing/calibrating the responses of the large-scale antenna arrays at an arbitrary direction is critical. The effective aperture distribution function (EADF) can provide an analytic description of an antenna array based on a full-sphere measurement of the array in an anechoic chamber. However, as the aperture of an array becomes significantly larger, application of the EADF requires very dense spatial samples, due to the large distance-offsets of the array elements to the reference point in the anechoic chamber. This will lead to a prohibitive measurement time and a high computational complexity of EADF. In this paper, we first present the EADF applied to large-scale arrays, followed by an analytical analysis of the issue caused by the large array aperture. To solve this issue, an enhanced EADF is proposed with a low complexity that is only relevant to the intrinsic characteristics of each array element rather than the aperture size of the array. Moreover, a measurement campaign conducted at the frequency band of 27-30GHz using a planar array is introduced, where the proposed enhanced-EADF is applied and validated.WG1,Sub-WG1
TD(22)03019Karol Zientarski, Mykyta Muravytskyi, Krzysztof Skoś,  Kamil Chełminiak, and Pawel KulakowskiMinimising Network Detection Probability in MANETs Using Unmanned VehiclesHistory shows that information is one of the key factors in military conflicts. Therefore there is a need to maintain communication channels on the battlefield. In this document, a simulator that allows to optimise the network to minimise the risk of detection by enemies was created. The simulator, using the Prim’s algorithm and the fine-tuning shows how a mobile ad-hoc network between soldiers aided with unmanned vehicles can become undetectable for enemy units.VT2
TD(22)03020Jelena Crnogorac, Jovan Crnogorac, Enis Kočan, Milica Pejanović-Djurišić, Mališa VučinićMonitoring dense multi-channel multi-hop wireless sensor networksExtensive implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in different areas makes the issue of their monitoring of great importance, not only in the phase of novel protocol development and network testing, but also in the regular operation phase of WSNs. This issue is particularly challenging in case of dense multi-channel multi-hop WSNs covering large areas, or implemented in harsh radio indoor environments. We propose a solution for defining number and position of sniffer devices, used for detecting network traffic in such WSNs, all with the goal to maximize the captured traffic. The proposed solution is based on searching minimal dominating set from graph theory and assumes known channel connectivity matrix, i.e. packet delivery ratio (PDR) on all channels and all links of a WSN. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method using the 6TiSCH Simulator with randomly generated topologies, as well as using the captured traces of network traffic on experimental FIT IoT-LAB testbed in Grenoble, with 50 nodes.VT4
TD(22)03021Armin Hadžiaganović, Raheeb Muzaffar, Hans-Peter Bernhard, Andreas SpringerIntegration of openSAFETY in OMNeT++Functional safety protocols provide automatic protection against system failures. Safety will be of critical importance for future industrial systems since they are undergoing automation and digital transformation under the Industry 4.0 revolution. However, functional safety depends on the underlying communication system employed in the manufacturing area. An extensive evaluation of the communication system and the functional safety protocol is needed before deploying it to the production environment. To facilitate the evaluation process of a fail-safe communication protocol, we integrate openSAFETY in the OMNeT++ simulation framework. We validate its integration by comparing the simulation results with an existing experimental work where the results show similar trends. Furthermore, we simulate an industrial closed-loop control use case with IEEE 802.11n being the communication technology. The results obtained in terms of safe-state duration and packet error rate demonstrate that 802.11n with its default configuration is not suitable for a high demanding industrial application.VT3
TD(22)03022Piotr Rajchowski, Olga Błaszkiewicz, Krzysztof K. Cwalina,  Jarosław Magiera, Alicja Olejniczak, Jarosław SadowskiImplementation of the Software-Defined NB-IoT Radio InterfaceIn the article the implementation of selected functional modules of the software-defined universal NB-IoT (Narrowband Internet of Things) radio interface was presented. The problem of time and frequency synchronization was pointed and the implementation the software modules realizing this synchronization process was discussed. Additionally, the sample results of performed functional tests aimed in verifying the ability of maintain-ing the synchronization of the terminal with the eNodeB station. The tests were realized by using the radio signals generated by the radiocommunication tester with an emulated radio channel influence to simulate various environmental conditions.WG2,VT4
TD(22)03023Nopphon Keerativoranan and Jun-ichi TakadaScenario-Based Radio Channel Modeling in Cyber-Physical Wireless EmulatorDesign, evaluation, and verification of a large-scale wireless system with high accuracy is essential prior to the implementation. Stochastic channel models are utilized for the link-level and system level simulations for the performance evaluation and the exhaustive drive-testing method is deployed for the validation. The former technique can be applicable for intra-system evaluation, but not suitable for inter-system interference in the realistic scenarios. The latter technique is time and cost inefficient. Concept of cyber physical wireless (CPW) emulator is introduced to overcome drawbacks of both of these approaches. It emulates the real-world wireless network scenario in real-time, not only within cyber space but also with real or prototype radios via physical interface. Hence, scenario-based radio channel modeling framework is necessary for the implementation of the cyber physical wireless emulator. Deterministic radio channel prediction such as ray tracing (RT) is typically preferable for the CPW emulator considering site-specific and high accuracy prediction. Therefore, spatial models such as 3D building map become essential part of the emulation. However, RT may not be practical in a large-scale environment due to spatial model complexity and computational cost. In such scenario, site-specific statistical models derived from field channel measurement are needed. Moreover, real-time computation is another challenge in such deterministic CPW emulator. In this paper, the overview of the scenario-based channel modelling will be discussed. The performance of the proposed channel emulation technique are comparatively investigated with RT simulation results.WG1
TD(22)03024CRISTINEL GAVRILA, VLAD POPESCU, MARIAN ALEXANDRU, MAURIZIO MURRONI, CLAUDIO SACCHI, TITUS BALANAn SDR-Based Satellite Gateway for Internet of Remote Things (IoRT) ApplicationsInternet-of-Things (IoT) represents a breakthrough for the current ICT market. In many IoT applications, sensors and actuators are distributed over very wide areas, sometimes not reached by terrestrial networks. In such scenarios, the satellite plays a significant role. In this paper, a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) – based satellite gateway for Internet-of-Remote-Things (IoRT) is proposed. The use of SDR allows to decrease equipment cost and provides higher flexibility. The proposed architecture has been implemented by using a standalone SDR platform and Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules for covering the main terrestrial IoT standards. Extensive proof-of-concept results are presented and discussed. Uplink and downlink tests showed the correct functionality implementation and transmitted signal generation, while the integration tests allowed to assess the reliability of the end-to-end information processing. Reconfigurability tests confirmed the capability of the gateway of dynamically updating in real-time its protocol settings. The overall test results showed the validity of the proposed SDR-based gateway for IoRT applications.WG3,VT4
TD(22)03025Kamran Sayrafian, Brian Cloteaux, Vladimir MarbukhOn the Performance of Automatic Exposure Determination Using Bluetooth-based Proximity EstimationThe proximity detection mechanism in current automatic exposure notification systems is typically based on the Bluetooth signal strength from the individual’s mobile phone. However, there is an underlying error in this proximity detection methodology that could result in wrong exposure decisions i.e., false negatives and false positives. A false negative error happens if a truly exposed individual is mistakenly identified as not exposed. This misidentification could result in further spread of the virus by the exposed (yet undetected) individual. Likewise, when a non-exposed individual is incorrectly identified as exposed, a false positive error occurs. This could lead to unnecessary quarantine of the individual; and therefore, incurring further economic cost. In this paper, using a simulation platform and a notion of proximity detection error, we investigate the performance of the system in terms of false exposure determinations. Knowledge of how the Bluetooth-based proximity detection error impacts such false determinations and identification of methodologies that can reduce this impact will be helpful to enhance the effectiveness of an automatic contact tracing system. Our preliminary results indicate the substantial impact of the proximity estimation error on the exposure detection accuracy. The results also suggest how proper filtering of distance measurements may reduce this impact.VT1
TD(22)03027Mohamed Abdulali, Amar Al-Jazri, Sana SalousMillimeter-Wave Channel Characterization based on Directional Measurements at 39 GHz and 70 GHz in a Street Canyon ScenarioThis TD presents results of wideband channel measurements in a street canyon scenario for both line of sight (LoS) and non-line of sight (NLoS) scenarios at 39 GHz and 70 GHz using omnidirectional antenna at the transmitter (Tx) side and wide beam directional antenna at the receiver (RX) side. Measurements were carried out using Durham University’s multi-band frequency modulated continuous wave channel sounder. The multipath component parameters (MPCs) including power delay profile (PDP), root mean square (RMS) delay spread (DS), angular spread (AS) and Path loss (PL) have been estimated at different angular orientations and compared for both frequency bands to characterize the measured channel.WG1
TD(22)03028Anna-Malin Schiffarth, Thomas Kopacz, Jörg Pamp, Dirk HeberlingInfluence of User Equipment’s Position on Local Exposure to 5GThis work addresses the influence of the position of a user equipment (UE) on frequency-selective exposure measurements at full load and on local downlink exposure at 5G NR base stations with beamforming antennas. Therefore, first, exposure measurements at five locations at a Huawei and an Ericsson base station showed that the emitted fields of the UE can overlap the 5G downlink of the base station while provoking a full load and can thus distort the measurement of the maximum possible exposure. Second, long-term measurements have demonstrated that the local exposure maximum in a 5G cell changes depending on the location of a moving UE. In contrast, a comparison with passive antennas of a 4G base station at the same location indicates that the local exposure in the cell is independent of the current location of the active UE.Sub-VT1
TD(22)03029Sara Willhammar, Liesbet Van der Perre, Fredrik TufvessonFading in reflective and heavily shadowed industrial environments with large arraysOne of the use cases for 5G systems and beyond is ultra-reliability low-latency communication (URLLC), with applications within industrial automation. An enabling technology for URLLC is massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), which has shown to increase reliability due to improved user separation, array gain and the channel hardening effect. Measurements have been performed in a real operating factory environment at 3.7~GHz with a co-located massive MIMO array and a unique randomly distributed array. For both arrays the channel hardening effect is quantified. Channel hardening can appear when the number of antennas is increased such that the variations of channel gain (small-scale fading) is decreased. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the channel gains then becomes steeper and its tail is reduced. This CDF is here modeled and the required fading margins are quantified. By deploying a distributed array, the large-scale power variations can also be reduced, further improving reliability. It can be seen that the large array in combination with the rich scattering environment, creates a more reliable channel as it approaches an independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) complex Gaussian channel, indicating that one can rethink the system design in terms of e.g. channel coding and re-transmission strategies. Overall, the conclusion is that massive MIMO is a highly interesting technology for reliable connectivity in reflective and heavily shadowed industrial environments.WG1,VT3
TD(22)03030Tamara Skoric, Dragana BajicReduction of Artifacts in Capacitive Electrocardiogram Signals of Driving SubjectsThe development of smart cars with e-health services allows monitoring of the health condition of the driver. Driver comfort is preserved by the use of capacitive electrodes, but the recorded signal is characterized by large artifacts. This paper proposes a method for reducing artifacts from the ECG signal recorded by capacitive electrodes (cECG) in moving subjects. Two dominant artifact types are coarse and slow-changing artifacts. Slow-changing artifacts removal by classical filtering is not feasible as the spectral bands of artifacts and cECG overlap, mostly in the band from 0.5 to 15 Hz. We developed a method for artifact removal, based on estimating the fluctuation around linear trend, for both artifact types, including a condition for determining the presence of coarse artifacts. The method was validated on cECG recorded while driving, with the artifacts predominantly due to the movements, as well as on cECG recorded while lying, where the movements were performed according to a predefined protocol. The proposed method eliminates 96% to 100% of the coarse artifacts, while the slow-changing artifacts are completely reduced for the recorded cECG signals larger than 0.3 V. The obtained results are in accordance with the opinion of medical experts. The method is intended for reliable extraction of cardiovascular parameters to monitor driver fatigue status.VT1
TD(22)03031Stefan Kalabakov, Aleš Švigelj, Tomaž JavornikSmartphone Proximity Detection Using WiFi and BLE FingerprintingIn light of events such as the recent pandemic and many potential applications in fields such as the social sciences,
healthcare, and architecture, the detection of interactions or the proximity between people has become increasingly important. In this context, this paper investigates the limitations of a machine learning-based approach that detects the proximity of two devices based on the WiFi and BLE fingerprints of their radio environments. More specifically, (i) we compare the use of a rudimentary set of two features and an extended, more complex set of features, (ii) we investigate the use of separate classifiers that treat WiFi and BLE features separately, and (iii) we investigate whether using only one of the two communication technologies for detection could provide better results. In addition, we also try to use techniques such as undersampling and oversampling or their combination to deal with the highly imbalanced set of examples. Our results show that the use of a more complex set of features that can be subjected to further feature selection procedures can provide a performance benefit of about 4.6 percentage points. In terms of the communication technologies used, our results also show
that using BLE alone always gives significantly worse results than using WiFi alone or WiFi and BLE together. On the other hand, there is no clear winner between using WiFi alone or combining WiFi and BLE, as both provide comparable results. Finally, our results also show that using under/oversampling helps in scenarios where the classification task is somewhat more complex, but not in those where the diversity between instances is low; thus, the classification problem is simpler.
TD(22)03032Guiqi Sun, Ruisi He, Bo Ai, Hang Mi, Yuan Yuan, Zhangdui ZhongA Geometry-Based Channel Model for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Assisted Communication SystemsRecently, reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has drawn much attention due to its capability of improving coverage and communication performance. The development of RISassisted communication technology relies on deep understanding of RIS channel characteristics. However, most of the existing investigations focus on the impact of RIS, ignoring the existence of local scatterers in the real propagation environment. The ideal propagation condition limits the accuracy and application of the developed channel model. In this paper, we aim to analyze the channel characteristics of RIS-assisted near-filed communication by considering different conditions of local scatterers. Specifically, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) RIS-assisted multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel model based on a three-dimensional cylinder model, which considers line-ofsight, single-bounced at RIS (SBR) and double-bounced (DB) modes where radio waves reflect from RIS and scatterers near receiver. Based on the proposed channel model, we investigate time-space correlation for SBR and DB propagation. From the simulation results, it is found that RIS element number, RIS locations, and movement of Rx have significant impacts on channel characteristics. These numerical results and observations can be used for design of RIS-assisted near-field communication systems.WG1
TD(22)03033Yuan Yuan, Ruisi He, Bo Ai, Hang Mi, Guiqi Sun, Zhangdui ZhongA Double-Spherical THz Channel Model for Ultra Massive MIMO CommunicationsIn this paper, a 3D geometry-based double-spherical terahertz (THz) channel model is proposed for ultra massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications. To reflect real THz ultra massive MIMO communications, the characteristic of nano-material array antenna and the high loss of THz bands are considered in channel modeling. Based on the proposed geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM), space-time-frequency correlation function is derived and analyzed. Influences of channel parameters, namely, carrier frequency, Fermi energy, and number and location of clusters, on the correlation functions are investigated. The results indicate that number of clusters has significant impacts on channel correlation, and the decreasing of correlation function becomes slower when Fermi energy decreases. Moreover, location of clusters also affects the drop rate of correlation function. The proposed channel model and the corresponding statistical properties are insightful for designing and realizing THz ultra massive MIMO systems for 6G and beyond.WG1
TD(22)03034Valentina TImcenko, Slavko GajinMachine Learning enhanced Entropy-Based Techniques for Network Anomaly DetectionThis research focuses on network behavior analysis and provides a comprehensive flow-based anomaly detection proposal, which is based on combined machine learning and entropy-based anomaly detection techniques. The entropy-based analysis can capture the behavior of the biggest contributors, and of a large number of minor appearances in the feature distribution, thus it can be applied for the needs of easier detection of rare traffic patterns. Then, the range of the machine learning algorithms can be applied to process the detected unusual traffic. The approach relies on the understanding of legitimate traffic behavior characteristics, which is further used to efficiently detect anomalous traffic patterns and deviations that could cause performance issues or indicate a breach. This way, it is possible to provide near real-time alerting and visibility of potential network security threats. This approach allows the detection of unknown threats, zero-day attacks, and suspicious behavior while providing performance optimization possibilities.WG3
TD(22)03035Markus Hofer, David Löschenbrand, Stefan Zelenbaba, Gerhard Humer, Benjamin Rainer, Thomas ZemenMassive MIMO Channel Measurements for a Railway Station ScenarioIn this paper we present massive MIMO channel measurements for a railway station scenario. The massive MIMO link shall provide an ultra-reliable low-latency communication link from the control center to the locomotive. In this measurement campaign the locomotive moves from line-of-sight to non line-of-sight. We present dual frequency band measurements, where the massive MIMO array at the base station has 24 receive antenna elements at 1890 MHz and 8 receive antenna elements at 748 MHz. The measurement bandwidth is 20 MHz and we use a repetition rate of 1 ms to acquire the time-variant channel frequency response of from the locomotive to all 32 antenna elements in parallel. In this paper, we provide a first analysis of the root mean square delay spread, the path loss coefficients and the channel hardening in both frequency bands.WG1,VT2
TD(22)03036David Löschenbrand, Markus Hofer, Laura Bernadó, Stefan Zelenbaba, Thomas ZemenTowards Cell-Free Massive MIMO: A Measurement-Based AnalysisCell-free widely distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems utilize radio units spread out over a large geographical area. The radio signal of a user equipment (UE) is coherently detected by a subset of radio units (RUs) in the vicinity of the UE and processed jointly at the nearest baseband processing unit (BPU). This architecture promises two orders of magnitude less transmit power, spatial focusing at the UE position for high reliability, and consistent throughput over the coverage area. All these properties have been investigated so far from a theoretical point of view. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first empirical radio wave propagation measurements in the form of time-variant channel transfer functions for a linear, widely distributed antenna array with 32 single antenna RUs spread out over a range of 46.5 m. The large aperture allows for valuable insights into the propagation characteristics of cell-free systems. Three different co-located and widely distributed RU configurations and their properties in an urban environment are analyzed in terms of time-variant delay-spread, Doppler spread, path-loss, and the correlation of the local scattering function over space. For the development of 6G cell-free massive MIMO transceiver algorithms, we analyze properties such as channel hardening, channel aging as well as the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR). Our empirical evidence supports the promising claims for widely distributed cell-free systems.WG1
TD(22)03037Robert Burczyk, Piotr Rajchowski, Jarosław SadowskiDetection algorithm of hidden narrowband intersystem interference in LTE systemIn the technical document, authors present the detection algorithm of narrowband intersystem interference in LTE system. The proposed interference detection algorithm is based on the analysis of received OFDM symbols phase variation in time. The technical document also contains the comparison of the interference detection effectiveness with the method known from the literature.WG2
TD(22)03038Raheeb Muzaffar, Ladislav Polák, Sara Cavallero, Irene Kilanioti, Golsa Ghiaasi5G challenges for industrial automationThe industry 4.0 digital transformation is led by the automation of manufacturing processes. Industrial applications are quite heterogeneous and pose diverse requirements to the communication system. The transformation towards industry 5.0 has also been initiated recently, emphasizing the inclusion of humans into the increasingly automated physical processes. At the same time, the 5G cellular technology is evolving to support highly diverse and heterogeneous environments for various applications. In addition, edge computing and artificial intelligence with data-driven system design open novel dimensions for optimization of processes. All these technological advancements can be used to support industrial automation. This paper reviews essential 5G enabling technologies and available campus network deployment. With a view to practicability, we put particular emphasis on 5G non-public network variants, but also look at multi-access edge computing infrastructure and 5G integration with TSN (time-sensitive networking) and OPC UA (open platform communications unified architecture). A critical analysis of available results suggests that together these technologies can be effective enablers for ubiquitous wireless industrial communication, despite the stringent needs of industrial applications, including support of different QoS levels and security. Furthermore, we highlight existing challenges and open research questions that need further investigation before an actual rollout of the 5G system to the manufacturing industry can take place.VT3
TD(22)03039Michał WYSOCKI, Robert NICPOŃ, Marta TRZASKA, Agnieszka CZAPIEWSKAResearch of Accuracy of RSSI Fingerprint-Based Indoor Positioning BLE SystemRadio localization in indoor environment is still a challenging task due to environment volatility. In the paper are compared achieved localization accuracies for RSSI-Fingerprinting method utilizing Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) for two different environments: large empty hall and narrow corridor. Measurements were done by 6 different smartphones of 3 different producers, which makes those measurements unique as accuracies achieved by different devices can be compared.WG2
TD(22)03042Peize Zhang, Pekka Kyösti, Mikkel Bengtson, Veikko Hovinen, Klaus Nevala, Joonas Kokkoniemi, and Aarno PärssinenExperimental Characterization of D-Band Human Body ShadowingRadio systems operating in upper millimeter-wave frequency band (100-300 GHz) are more likely to be deployed in real-world environments because the communication links are particularly susceptible to shadowing events, e.g., caused by the user’s body. In this TD we present the results of D-band channel measurement campaign, which was conducted to characterize the impact of human blockage with a focus on the additional attenuation and deep fading duration. The attenuation by single human blockers with different physical characteristics was measured with human frontal and lateral crossing the line-of-sight link. Predicting results of two knife-edge diffraction models are compared with the measurement curves, which underestimate the attenuation levels due to the presence of human blockage, especially for the volunteer with larger size. Meanwhile, we quantify the degree of deep fading duration varying with fading depth, which helps to optimize the beam alignment strategy for maintaining sufficient signal-to-noise ratio when dominant path is heavily obstructed. More detailed analysis is ongoing with respect to different user cases in order to refine existing diffraction models for the characterization of human blockage effect.WG1,Sub-WG1
TD(22)03043David Löschenbrand, Markus Hofer, Thomas ZemenMassive MIMO Channel Prediction and Channel Hardening for Mobile UsersWe investigate the effects of user mobility on a single-cell massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in terms of reliability. We derive a model for channel aging and multi-step channel prediction, given a general, stationary, temporal covariance matrix. Furthermore, we show that channel hardening, i.e., the capability of a massive MIMO system to eliminate small-scale fading and create quasi-deterministic effective channel gains, is independent of the channel state information (CSI) age. The asymptotic results show an improvment in signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of 20 dB and are confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations, demonstrating an excellent match.WG1
TD(22)03044Yilin Ji and Wei FanEnabling High-fidelity Ultra-wideband Radio Channel Emulation: Band-stitching and Digital Pre-distortion ConceptsChannel emulators are the key instrument in radio performance testing. The fidelity of the emulated channel with respect to the target channel models directly affects the credibility of the testing result. In practice, due to some non-idealities of the radio-frequency (RF) components of the emulator, its intrinsic frequency response, i.e., the response of the bypass mode, may not be flat over the frequency band of interest, which leads to an excessive distortion over the target channel models, and hence a less accurate emulated channel. This problem could be even more profound when the emulator engages the band-stitching process for a wider-bandwidth emulation, especially in the transition frequency band between adjacent sub-bands. To enable high-fidelity band-stitched or even ultra-wideband channel emulation, we propose a novel digital pre-distortion concept in this work, where we pre-distort the target channel models according to the measured intrinsic response of the emulator to compensate for its effect on the emulated channel. The proposed method is numerically assessed with measured intrinsic responses of a commercial emulator, and the magnitude and phase variations of the stitched channel reduce by one order of magnitude in comparison to that of the conventional method.WG1
TD(22)03045Diego Dupleich, Alexander Ebert, Yanneck Völker-Schöneberg, Leon Löser, Mate Boban, and Reiner ThomäSpatial/Temporal Characterization of Propagation and Blockage from Measurements at sub-THz in Industrial MachinesIn the present paper we introduce novel ultra-wideband dual-polarized double-directional easurements at sub-THz (300 GHz) in an access point to inside of machine application in an industrial scenario. The results show a sparse spatial/temporal channel with multiple paths from the different metallic objects and their influence on polarization. In addition, different LOS blockage situations were investigated, showing the presence of alternative paths for communications.WG1,Sub-WG1
TD(22)03046Abdul Saboor, Evgenii Vinogradov, Zhuangzhuang Cui, Sofie PollinProbability of Line of Sight Evaluation in Urban Environments using 3D SimulatorUnmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) communications offer various advantages over terrestrial communications due to mobility and high Probability of Line Of Sight (PLoS). Estimating the PLoS from UAV to ground users at a certain distance or inclination angle in different urban environments is essential for designing various applications. The existing PLoS models have limited applicability or cannot be generalized for any environment. Therefore, we present three-dimensional (3D) city simulator to estimate PLoS from UAV to ground users for arbitrary UAV height, user height, and distance. The simulator results can be generalized using built-up parameters for any city environment. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of different UAV locations on PLoS for street coverage. Lastly, we develop a lightweight geometry-based simulator using random user locations to validate the 3D simulator results. Index Terms—Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Probability of Line Of Sight (PLoS), AerialBase Station (ABS).VT2,VT4
TD(22)03047Manuel M. Ferreira, Filipe D. Cardoso, Sławomir J. Ambroziak, Kenan Turbic, Mariella Särestöniemi, Luís M. CorreiaInfluence of User Mobility on System Loss and Depolarisation in a BAN Indoor ScenarioIn this paper, an analysis of system loss and depolarisation in Body Area Networks for Body-to-Infrastructure communications based on a measurement campaign in an indoor environment is made, and a model for the standard deviation of the cross-polarisation discrimination ratio based on antenna visibility, link dynamics, user mobility and transmitter polarisation is proposed.  Measurements were performed with a off-body antenna transmitting linear polarised signals and receiving antennas carried by the user on the body.  The standard deviation of the cross-polarisation shows a clear dependence on user dynamics, with higher values in the walking scenarios, [0.99, 1.92] dB than the standing ones, [0.32, 0.74] dB.  A Normal Distribution with a mean of 2.0 dB and a standard deviation of 4.3 dB  is found to be the best fit for modelling the effects of cross-polarisation discrimination.WG1
TD(22)03048Alicja Olejniczak, Olga Błaszkiewicz, Krzysztof K. Cwalina, Piotr Rajchowski, Jarosław SadowskiSoftware-Defined NB-IoT FrameworkIn the radiocommunication area, we may observe a rapid growth of new technology, such as 5G. Moreover, all the newly introduced radio interfaces, e.g., narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT), are strongly dependent on the software. In this paper, a software-defined NB-IoT framework in the field of design is presented, as well as its realization and potential use cases. The proposed realization is focused on the key elements in the physical layer of the NB-IoT interface used in the sensor devices. The proposed software-defined NB-IoT framework should be understood as an evaluational platform, where the signal processing functional blocks of the NB-IoT Rel. 13 and Rel. 14 standards are represented as a set of modules. It means that the design of the radio interface is completely modular, thus the adaptive form makes it possible to implement, execute, and test each part independently of the target platforms, testbeds, OTA stands, simulation environments, hardware–software stands with the FPGA support, or even distributed laboratory environments. Furthermore, the paper also highlights the need of the data processing optimization to minimize the power consumption and usage of the resources of the NB-IoT node during transmitting gathered telemetric data.WG2
TD(22)03049Yann Maret, Jean-Frederic Wagen, Franck Legendre, Mohsin Raza, Nik BessisDetailed analysis of optimal and feasible suboptimal MAC scheduling for realistic MANET scenariosSmall, less than about 100 nodes, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) offer a number of advantages compare to infrastructure-based systems, especially for search and rescue and tactical applications where all nodes should be able to communicate to any other nodes. The flexibility of MANETs can be used to insure reliable communications among all nodes. Since the ideal fully meshed MANET topology cannot be insured in practice, nodes must be able to route packets and schedule the transmission to maximize the performance, throughput for example, despite the dynamic change of the topology. Throughput maximization can be achieved by providing more radio resources to the most used links, i.e., by scheduling more Tx slots to the most traversed nodes. In this contribution, we consider the case where the demand is characterized by short messages of equal size of 300B. Assuming that all pairs should be accommodated and given a topology, a set of shortest paths and an optimal TDMA schedule can be computed. An optimal schedule should last 3 to 6 seconds. However, realistic mobility scenarios like the open Anglova.net scenario changes every second. Suboptimal schedules are computed to use about 50 slots, i.e., less than 300ms, but providing more slots to the most traversed nodes as compared to a Round Robin schedule. Results are presented and discussed using the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and the Omniscient Dijkstra Routing (ODR), with and without fading, with and without omniscient flow control allowing to avoid transmissions when no route is available and with/out slots reserved. The performance increased from 2kbps for the classical round robin schedule to 4kbps for the suboptimal ODR without fading using 1Mbps radio links. A Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm is investigated to propose more practical solutions to improve scheduling. Preliminary results on emulated radios present the performance of a so-called TDMA-Qs: a centralized RL agent based Q-Learning for slot allocation in MANETs. The TDMA-Qs agent identifies additional slots to provide to the nodes to keep a balance between the data to transmit and the slot allocation. The canonical 8-node 2-cluster topology is considered to evaluate the performance of the TDMA-Qs agent in static topology and fixed demand. The results show that the agent is able to provide slots to central nodes of the communications.WG3
TD(22)03050Hamid Taramit, Luis Orozco-Barbosa, José Jaime Camacho Escoto, Javier Gomez, Abdelkrim HaqiqAdaptive Channel Allocation in non-Saturated Rayleigh Fading Wi-Fi HaLow NetworksThis paper considers a non-saturated IEEE 802.11ah-based network where stations are distributed around the Access Point (AP) and operate under a Rayleigh-fading channel with capture. We develop an analytical framework based on a two-level renewal process to model the contention within a group of stations and derive the Average Service Time (AST), presenting the proper size of the RAW slot that ensures successful delivery of all packets without extra waste of channel time. We also evaluate the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and channel usage for a pre-allocated RAW slot in terms of designated stations to prove the effectiveness of our proposal. Our analytical framework is validated via extensive MATLAB simulations and can be applied to alternative communication technologies addressing dense scenarios and integrating periodic channel reservations.WG3,VT3,VT4
TD(22)03051Daniele Medda, Athanasios Iossifides, Periklis Chatzimisios, Fernando Velez and Jean-Frederic WagenInvestigating inclusiveness and backwards compatibility for WLAN deployments containing IEEE 802.11be multi-link devicesNowadays is not possible not to consider the coexistence and the fusion of different wireless technologies as completely separated entities. The ever-growing number of devices employing multi-RAT (Multiple Radio Access Technology) that require continuous wireless connectivity is posing great challenges. Furthermore, the requirements in terms of both throughput and latency originated by the use cases are pushing the current technologies to their limits, especially when considering dense deployments in indoor scenarios, which currently are mostly covered through WiFi. The IEEE 802.11 Working Group is currently tackling such challenges by working on a new amendment of the standard (namely 802.11be), which introduces, among other novelties, the Multi-Link Operation. Through this modality of operation, simultaneous transmission over multiple bands is performed to obtain massive throughputs up to 40 Gbps. Naturally, the introduction of a such new technology poses challenges on the coexistence with older, legacy devices in mixed networks. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to explore and investigate how the coexistence of legacy IEEE 802.11 devices and new IEEE 802.11be devices operating in multi-link can be improved by using an appropriate static band assignment policy, and how the general network behaves in varying conditions (mainly the number of devices and the legacy/new nodes ratio). The experimental phase has been carried out by means of simulation for three different band allocation cases close to reality, and results in terms of aggregated, average throughput and fairness, for different conditions, are presented and discussed, altogether with further considerations on their exploitation.WG3,VT4
TD(22)03052X. Liu, L. Schmitt, B. Sievert, J. Lipka, C. Geng, K. Kolpatzeck, D. Erni, A. Rennings, J. C. Balzer, M. Hoffmann, and A. CzylwikTerahertz beam steering using a MEMS-based reflectarray configured by a genetic algorithmWith the increase in potential uses of terahertz technology, the need for terahertz transceivers
with application-oriented adaptive radiation patterns has emerged. Reconfigurable reflectarrays consisting
of actuated sub-wavelength reflectors have been successfully used for terahertz beam steering and beamforming. They do not require a complex feeding network and associated electronics, enabling a compact and
power-efficient terahertz beam steering system. However, the current reflectarray-based beam steering is
accomplished by forming the reflectarray as a grating structure, which is accompanied by the problems such
as grating lobes, limited steering range, and discrete steering angles. Here, we configure a MEMS-based
reflectarray with the genetic algorithm to eliminate the grating lobes and open up the possibility of
customizing its radiation pattern. We used single- and multi-objective optimization to find the optimal height
profile of the reflectarray and verified the results by full-wave electromagnetic simulations. We measured
the radiation patterns of four reflectarray phantoms, i.e. reflectarrays without the MEMS actuation systems.
The measurement results agree well with the calculated ones, with the main beam deviating at most 2 degrees
from the target direction. Our work demonstrates how a genetic algorithm is used to shape a reconfigurable
terahertz reflectarray to eliminate the grating lobes and tailor some specific featuress in its radiation pattern.
TD(22)03053Anja Dakić, Benjamin Rainer, Markus Hofer, Stefan Zelenbaba, Stefan Teschl, Guo Nan, Peter Priller, Xiaochum Ye, Thomas ZemenHardware-in-the-Loop Framework for Testing Wireless V2X CommunicationIn this paper we present a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) framework for testing wireless vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication hardware, i.e., modems under realistic channel conditions. The framework includes a wireless channel emulator, which is capable of emulating non-stationary wireless channels in real-time. We validate the HiL framework by comparing the frame error rate (FER) obtained via emulation with data obtained during a V2X measurement campaign using the same IEEE 802.11p based modems. To do this we acquire measured time-variant channel transfer function and FER measurements simultaneously. The results show that our HiL approach is feasible and that we can obtain FER measurements in the laboratory that closely match the measurement results obtained on the road.WG1,VT2
TD(22)03054Marjolijn Kleijer, Gerhard Steinböck, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Martin Johansson, Bart SmoldersImpact of Façade Details on Radio Propagation at 28 GHzChannel modeling tools, such as ray-tracers, require geometrical information of the environment. Usually, this geometrical information consists of smooth 3D models. These models are obtained by extruding building footprints from commercially available digital maps. However, with the evolution of mobile networks and the use of higher frequencies, small-scale geometric details are becoming increasingly important. This contribution investigates if the typically used diffuse scattering models are sufficient to mimic these small-scale geometric variations or if more detailed geometrical models are needed. A ray-tracer based on geometrical optics and radio wave propagation theory is used to simulate a model with various levels of details. Comparison between the simulations and corresponding measurements leads to the conclusion that the typically used diffuse scattering models may not mimic scattering from façades well. More details, such as windows, should be included in the 3D models or an improved façade scattering model is required to more realistically modeling the scattering observed from a façade.WG1
TD(22)03055Enrico M.Vitucci, Nicolò Cenni, Franco Fuschini, Vittorio Degli-EspostiA Reciprocal Heuristic Model for Diffuse Scattering from Walls and SurfacesDiffuse scattering of electromagnetic waves from natural and artificial surfaces has been extensively studied in various disciplines, including radio wave propagation, and several diffuse scattering models based on different approaches have been proposed over the years, two of the most popular ones being Kirchhoff Theory and the so-called Effective Roughness heuristic model. The latter, although less rigorous than the former, is more flexible and applicable to a wider range of real-world cases, including non-Gaussian surfaces, surfaces with electrically small correlation lengths and scattering from material inhomogeneities that are often present under the surface. Unfortunately, the Effective Roughness model, with the exception of its Lambertian version, does not satisfy reciprocity, which is an important physical-soundness requirement for any propagation model.
In the present work, without compromising on its effectiveness and its simple and yet sound power-balance approach, we propose a reciprocal version of the Effective Roughness model, which can be easily implemented and replaced to the old version in ray-based propagation models. The new model is analyzed and compared to the old one and to other popular models in the present paper. Once properly calibrated, the new model is shown to yield similar – if not better – performance with respect to the old one when checked vs. measurements.
TD(22)03056Olga Błaszkiewicz, Piotr Rajchowski, Jarosław SadowskiSynchronization methods analysis in NB-IoTIn the article a survey of frequency-time synchronization methods and analysis were made. Three different methods of synchronization were implemented. Analysis and comparison of the results were based on real NB-IoT signals generated by radiocommunication tester in confined and emulated propagation environment.WG2
TD(22)03057Mohammed Mallik, Angesom Ataklity Tesfay, Joe Wiart, Davy Gaillot, and Laurent ClavierEMF Exposure measurement in Métropole Européenne de LilleWith the fifth-generation (5G) deployment, electromagnetic field exposure has become a critical concern. However, measurements are scarce, and accurate electromagnetic field reconstruction in a geographic region remains challenging. This paper presents the drive-test electromagnetic field measurement of the European metropolis of Lille. The main objective is to use the drive-test measurement data to train a machine learning-based electromagnetic field exposure mapping model and reconstruct the exposure from a few sensors located in an outdoor urban environment. Additionally, the drive-test data is compared with the drive-test performed by Métropole Européenne de Lille in 2017.Sub-VT1
TD(22)03058Wim KottermanDeriving beam dynamics in FR2 derived from V2I channel measurements in FR1The dynamics of transmit beams in FR2 for vehicular scenarios can be measured directly, but at high costs. Here, measurements in FR1 are used to emulate the channel conditions in FR2. The idea behind this is that the large scattering objects that are likely to transport the power on the channel in NLoS, are present in both FR1 and FR2, be it it of course with some differences in scattering strength and directivity. We take the scattering in FR1 as possibly more stable than in FR2, in this way giving a lower limit on the speed of change in beam visibility at the receiver. The sounding measurements were originally intended for emulating low-altitude satellite MIMO transmissions to mobile users, that is from a high base station position, in urban Berlin, Germany. The data are fully-polarimetric @ 2.53 GHz.WG1,Sub-WG1
TD(22)03059Michael Döbereiner, Gerd Sommerkorn, Wim KottermanProposal for structured storage and access of data and meta data in HDF5 format. Example: the datapool contribution from TU Ilmenau.The INTERACT data pool is under construction. At the moment, data is stored locally in proprietary formats. One of the worst jobs in processing measurement campaign data is combining the measured data with corresponding meta data, directly followed by structured access of specific items in the data. For such tasks in large to very large data sets, the hierarchical Data Format has been developed, of which HDF5 is the current version. We show some of the advantages this data format has for storing and accessing very diverse sets of data as well as sets of very diverse data. As an example, we demonstrate this by explaining the data format of the channel sounding data supplied to the INTERACT data pool by TU llmenau. We hope that adopting such a format for pool data leads to more homogeneous access of data in the pool.WG1,HA1
TD(22)03060Gerd Sommerkorn, Michael Döbereiner, Wim KottermanContribution to the data pool by TU Ilmenau: Full-polarimetric V2I MIMO channel sounding data sets @2.53GHz in urban environment, together with pertinent antenna array characteristicsSeven measurement runs, selected from a measurement campaign in Bonn, Germany, are offered to the data pool. The environment is urban, the context is V2I from an elevated base station, the set-up is fully polarimetric MIMO with an 8 dual-pol element linear Tx array and a 24 dual-pol element Rx array, configured as four circular rings of 6 elements each. The frequency is 2.53 GHz, the bandwidth 20 MHz. For easy access of relevant quantities, data as well as meta data are stored jointly in HDF5 format. For aiding interpretation of the data, full Tx and Rx array characteristics are included.WG1,VT2,HA1
TD(22)03061Mohammed Mallik, Joe Wiart, Davy P. Gaillot, Laurent ClavierA GAN and LSTM model Based Spatio-Temporal Electromagnetic Field Exposure Prediction MethodWith the fifth-generation (5G) deployment, electromagnetic field exposure has become a critical concern. However, measurements are scarce, and accurate spatial and temporal sequence of electromagnetic field reconstruction in a geographic region remains challenging. In this work, a Generative Adversarial Network and long-term and short-term memory neural networks are proposed to address this issue. The main objective is to reconstruct the electromagnetic field exposure map accurately from a few sensors located in an outdoor urban environment and then use these predictions to capture the temporal behavior of the fields. The model is trained to learn and predict the propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic field. The reconstructed fields are then used to predict electromagnetic fields for the next hour using long-term and short-term memory neural networks (LSTM). Results show that the proposed method produces accurate estimates and is a promising solution for spatiotemporal exposure map reconstruction.Sub-VT1
TD(22)03062Ahmed Boujnoui, J. J. Camacho Escoto, Javier Gomez, Luis Orozco Barbosa, and Abdelkrim HaqiqEnergy Analysis of a Broadcast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11bc Enhanced Broadcast ServicesIn this paper, we conduct an energy consumption analysis of a broadcast access mechanism over IEEE 802.11 networks. By assuming non-saturated conditions, we provide a statistical model of the energy consumed during one cycle period defined as the duration between two successful broadcast transmissions. The model includes a characterization of the medium access transmission mechanism. Our results show that the broadcast protocol is a good candidate to be included in future amendments of the IEEE 802.11 standard.WG3
TD(22)03063Guoda Tian, Ilayda Yaman, Xuesong Cai, Liang Liu, Fredrik TufvessonIndoor Wireless Positioning with sub-centimeter accuracy using real Massive MIMO TestbedHigh-precision localization technology as well as Artificial intelligence (AI) play an important role on the next generation cellular communication system. In this paper, we evaluate the potentials of applying AI technique to solve indoor positioning tasks with high accuracy requirements. We propose a novel processing pipeline for solving localization tasks utilizing massive MIMO antenna array. The proposed pipeline considers a narrow band uplink system, where UE transmits narrowband sounding signals which are captured by an antenna array at base station side. The pipeline contains a pre-processing algorithm which extracts information embedded in spatial domain, by calculating received channel covariance matrices which embed the spatial correlation information among all antennas. Those matrices are fed into a fully-connected neural network to estimate positions of users. To further improve the positioning accuracy, ensemble learning algorithms are applied, which first divide the large array into few sub-arrays. At next step, we calculate the covariance matrices regarding to those sub-arrays and feed those matrices into several independent neural networks. The outputs of those networks are combined to further improve the positioning results. In addition, we propose a novel method to determine the necessary training samples by applying Nyquist theorem. To evaluate our proposed algorithms, we conduct indoor measurement campaign using a robot as UE and Lund university massive MIMO testbed as base-station. We show that we can reach sub-centimeter accuracy level by applying our proposed processing pipeline.WG1,WG2
TD(22)03064Conchi Garcia-Pardo, Alberto Nájera, Álvaro Villaescusa, Sergio Castelló-Palacios, Jesús Gonzalez Rubio, Narcis Cardona5G EMF Exposure Assesment Methods: Theoretical Maximum vs Total Exposure in the City of ValenciaThe 5G roll-out is aimed to bring new services and applications along with new model businesses. Nevertheless, it exists social concern about the implications on health of 5G EMF human exposure. Besides, the novelties of 5G in the radio interface make it necessary to review and update the methodologies for the assessment of exposure in 5G technology. Thus, the development of proper assessment methodologies will impact the adequate deployment of 5G systems as well as assuring the safe operation of devices for people. This work aims at comparing the results of total exposure and the theoretical maximum exposure in commercial 5G networks already deployed in the city of Valencia. These are the first 5G measurements performed for commercial networks in Spain and aim at setting the basis of 5G EMF exposure considering the state of the art of 5G measurements available so far.Sub-VT1
TD(22)03065Francesca Conserva, Roberto VerdoneMathematical Description of User Satisfaction for UAV-Aided Vehicular NetworksFuture mobile radio networks require a degree of flexibility that technologies Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) (a.k.a. drones) carrying Base Stations (BS) can provide. In particular, UAVs acting as flying BSs create what we can refer to as the 3D Networks paradigm. In this perspective, we foresee the employment of UABSs to enable indirect Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications via drones. In this way, the vehicular users can enhance the perception of their surroundings beyond what their own sensors can detect, running augmented sensing applications.
The objective of this work is to extend a mathematical framework that aims at providing the assessment of some theoretical limits regarding a UAV-Aided Vehicular Network. The mathematical model, that relies on stochastic geometry, provides an expression of the Vehicular User Access Probability, which is the probability that the ground user is both covered by one UABS beam and it is assigned enough resources to successfully transmit in uplink its traffic demand. In particular, the Access Probablity is expressed as a function of both the UABS’ height and the antenna system’s aperture angle.   Numerical results show optimal couples of both these values allowing to reach the desired level of user satisfaction.
TD(22)03066Francisco Muro, Eduardo Baena, Sergio Fortes, Lars Nielsen, Raquel BarcoA novel approach for Noisy Neighbour identification and handling for virtualized 5G CoreThe evolution of the new generation of mobile networks towards virtualization involves the emergence of new problems to deal with. The sharing of the underlying infrastructure between multiple virtual units as well as any other processes can trigger a competition for the dynamic allocation of the resources, leading to a decrease in network performance and impacting service quality and users’ experience. In this context, a renewal to the management procedures applied to the predecessor networks as well as the consideration of new variables that were previously ignored (e.g, computational capacity) is determined as crucial. The present work introduces a novel framework with multiple coexistent computational processes, where a “Noisy Neighbour” (NN) is identified as an entity that uses most of the underlying resources while other virtual units suffer a lack of them. The present work proposes a baseline for NN handling through a novel lifecycle management flow. In this way, it is analysed and assessed the NN problem in 5G Core scenarios, as well as the degradation that KPIs suffer in the network when a NN appears. For this purpose, several ML models have been tested for the identification of this malicious entity based on the metrics obtained from the network, proving the validity of the approach. In addition, ML is also applied to performance forecasting, along with a model for the prediction of the CPU resources that the network may demand at any given conditions, supporting the proposed management flow.WG3
TD(22)03067Alicja Olejniczak, Krzysztof K. Cwalina, Jaroslaw Sadowski, Jacek StefanskiEFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP LEARNING-BASED MODELS FOR GMSK SIGNAL DETECTIONArtificial intelligence dynamically enters the realm of radiocommunication not only in the scientific context but also regarding commercial market. The paper presents evaluation of the deep learning (DL) models for Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) signal demodulation in AWGN channel. The proposed DL methods were compared with optimal Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE) detector based on Bit Error Rate (BER) metric.WG2
TD(22)03068Thomas Blazek, Adrian KliksChallenges and achievents in transportation – VT2It this paper, the achievemenst made so far as well as all identified challenges within VT2 are summarized. They go across all INTERACT workpackages and cover the vast spectrum of research topics such as channel sounding, application of edge Intelligence and the role of 6G in transportation.VT2
TD(22)03069Fred Wagen and Yann MaretOn Physical Layer Abstraction for realistic real time emulations: do we need an INTERACTion between WG1 and WG3 ?In WG1, accurate modeling of the radio propagation and of the radios Tx/Rx characteristics are of major interest. In WG3, accurate multiusers system simulations and emulations is increasingly important to quantify the benefits and the limitations of new schemes in advanced communications systems from WiFi to 6G to V2x. An abstracted PHY based on Packet Error Rate-vs-Signal to Interference+Noise Ratio (PER-vs-SNR) curves does not need to generate or decode waveforms. The abstracted PHY allows simulations to run in minutes instead of hours and real time emulation became feasible but at the cost of accuracy. How accurate the WG3 and WG1 communities needs to be ?  Although somewhat equivalent, changing the PER-SINR curves according to the environment, the MCS and the Packet Size is favored to, as an example, adding a Gaussian Random variable G(3,5)dB to the pre-computed pathloss. Some non-exhaustive thoughts, reviews, measurements, simulation results are presented.WG1,WG3
TD(22)03070Konstantinos Katzis, Irene Kilanioti, Sławomir J. Ambroziak, Kamran SayrafianTechnical Challenges in Vertical Team 1: Health & Well-Being This document captures the general technical challenges that are under discussion and research by Vertical Team 1 (VT1) on Health and Well-being. The Technical Documents (TDs) that have already been presented by the participants in the past two meetings of COST CA20120 are addressing some of the issues under these challenges. The technical topics in vertical team 1 cover a wide spectrum of subjects; therefore, the challenges presented in this document is not meant to be an exhaustive list. Consequently, in the future, the content of this TD is expected to evolve as more VT1 participants contribute their research ideas and results to the action and possibly new challenge areas are identified. In the following, a summary of the current challenges is presented.VT1