6th MC Meeting and 6th Technical Meeting – Poznan, Poland, September 11-14

TD Number
TD Author
TD Title
TD Abstract
TD(23)06001Jose-Maria Molina García-Pardo, Davy Gaillot, M. T. Martinez-Ingles, Juan Pascual and Ismail BenmabroukInitial Results on Virtual and Directional Channel Sounding at mmWAbstract— This TD presents preliminary results on a measurement campaign at mmW, where 2D-virtual arrays and 3D-directional sounding are performed in the same positions, to investigate the accuracy of both approaches by comparing them with ray tracing. Measurements are performed in an indoor environment in the university, from 26 to 40 GHz.WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)06002Diego Dupleich, Alexander Ebert, Yanneck Völker-Schöneberg, Damir Sitdikov, Mate Boban, Lutfi Samara, Giovanni Del Galdo, Reiner ThomäCharacterization of Propagation in an Industrial Scenario from Sub-6 GHz to 300 GHzWe perform simultaneous multi-band ultra-wideband dual-polarized double-directional measurements at sub-6 GHz (center frequency, 6.75 GHz), mmWave (74.25 GHz), and sub-THz (305.27 GHz) in line of sight (LOS) and non-LOS in a small industrial scenario (machine room). The aim is to characterize the propagation at THz taking as a reference the lower bands and identifying shared and distinguishing features. The spatial/temporal analysis of the measurements shows strong similarities in multiparty components between the different bands. Moreover, high order reflections have been identified at THz. Overall, the results indicate that THz channels exhibit significant multi-path, with some specular MPCs unique to the band and with lower contribution by the diffuse components. Finally, path-loss has also been computed and compared with existing multi-band models.WG1,Sub-WG1.1,VT3
TD(23)06003Adrian Fernandez Carnicero, Anja K. SkrivervikDielectric permittivity  characterization of biological solutions for implantable antenna designMiniaturization techniques enables the use of antennas in sensing systems at cellular and molecular level due to its reduced size. In this kind of systems, the implanted sensors are usually surrounded by a lossy biological medium which affects antenna behaviour. For reaching the best performance of the implanted antenna, the effect of the medium needs to be electrically characterized and considered during the design process. This paper presents the electrical characterization of some biological solutions which are generally used in sensing systems at cellular and molecular level: Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS), Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (DMEM + 10% FBS). Measurement results of these water-based mediums from 0.2 to 20 GHz using an open-air coaxial probe are performed and presented in this work. Moreover, the complex permittivity variation with temperature is measured and compared with the values of water. Finally, the parameters of the two-pole Cole-Cole model are extracted for each biological medium and for every temperature combination. The calculated Cole-Cole theoretical curves can be used in the antenna design process.VT1
TD(23)06004Nila bagheri, Bahram Khan, Emanuel Teixeira and Fernando J. VelezFractal Patch Antenna based on Crystal Photonic applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems in the 40 GHz Millimeter Waveband5G (and beyond) has very high bandwidth, short latency, better quality of service, and the right amount of capacity. Technological breakthroughs in mobile communication systems user equipments operating in the millimeter wavebands imply a high gain to compensate the effect of path loss. In this work, a novel photonic crystal-based microstrip patch antenna array with high gain is designed to be used in the next generation intelligent transportation ssytems, e.g., V2X, and other exciting applications. The Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structure and Finite Element Method were considered. By using the High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS) software, a fractal microstrip patch antenna operating in the U-band of the electromagnetic spectrum is conceived and modeled on a two-dimensional photonic crystal. The use of the PBG structure improves the antenna’s gain and bandwidth, while the antenna’s fractal form decreases its size and improves its input impedance. The operational frequency range is 41.72-45.12 GHz with a resonant band centered at 43.26 GHz. The proposed antenna is comprised of a 0.45 mm thick copper ground plane, a 0.9 mm thick FR-4 epoxy substrate with a relative transmittance of 4.4, and a 0.45 mm thick copper antenna patch. The achieved frequency band gain is 8.95 dBi.WG1,VT2
TD(23)06048Anders Malthe Westerkam, Carles Navarro Manchón, Preben Mogensen, Troels PedersenBayesian Joint Localization and Tracking Algorithm Using Multiple-Input Multiple-Output RadarWe present a novel joint localisation and tracking algorithm for multiple-input multiple-output active radars. The proposed algorithm, which we dub Bayesian localisation and tracking (BLaT), relies on approximate Bayesian inference using the mean field approach and processes all available received data to jointly estimate the target’s track and location. BLaT is shown to outperform a classical sequential processing baseline in terms of its ability to track targets in low signal-to-noise ratio conditions as well as manoeuvring targets, keeping its average root mean square error below 1.5 m in all simulated tracks. The proposed method can be used as foundation for a further developed multi-target detection and tracking algorithm.WG2
TD(23)06011Grega Morano, Aleš Simončič†, Teodora Kocevska, Tomaž Javornik, Andrej HrovatAngle of Arrival Estimation Using IEEE 802.15.4 TSCH ProtocolWireless localization and sensing functions play a
crucial role in facilitating collaboration and interaction between
people and machines in Industry 5.0. Driven by the Integrated
Sensing and Communication (ISAC) paradigm, we modify the
Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) protocol to support
Angle of Arrival (AoA) estimation, enabling joint localization and
communication functionalities. The TSCH timeslot is extended
allowing the AoA to be estimated with each received packet. In
order to improve the accuracy of the AoA estimates and enable
estimation even at high Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO), we
propose a two-stage CFO calibration method. The operation of
the proposed solution is validated in an indoor scenario utilizing
low-cost off-the-shelf components. By utilizing 16 successive AoA
estimates with a Round Robin antenna switching pattern, the
standard deviation and the mean absolute error are on average
below 1.7°
TD(23)06012Tamara Skoric and Dragana BajicStress level detection based on capacitive electrocardiogram signals of driving subjectsThe automotive industry as well as the scientific community are making efforts to develop innovative solutions that would increase the safety of drivers and children in cars, as well as comfort and services that facilitate driving itself. This study investigates the ability to classify different stress levels during driving based on capacitive electrocardiogram signals (cECG) recorded unobtrusively. The proposed machine-learning model extracted only three features, based on the detection of the R peak (the local maximum of the ECG signal), that can be the most reliably detected characteristic point in the inferior quality of unobtrusively recorded cECG. The proposed method was validated on three open data sets recorded during driving: ECG recorded by electrodes with direct contact with skin; cECG recorded without direct skin contact through clothes by capacitive electrodes built into a portable multi-modal cushion; and cECG recorded through the clothes without direct skin contact by capacitive electrodes built into a car seat. Obtained results are comparable to or better than state-of-the-art ML models that use as input, either the complete ECG time series or features extracted based on feature points (PQRST complex).VT1
TD(23)06013Lianet Méndez-Monsanto Suárez, Manuel José López Morales, Ana García Armada5G NR BLER-SNR Curves for All Modulation and Coding Schemes under AWGN ChannelThis paper contributes by providing a comprehensive set of block error rate (BLER) vs. signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) curves under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel conditions for every possible modulation and coding schemes (MCS) belonging to 3GPP 5G NR TS 138 214 standard, including low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded and uncoded cases, according to TS 138 212. By providing this extensive dataset, the paper offers valuable insights to assist in the selection of the most appropriate MCS depending on the required BLER-SNR scenario, serving as a guiding tool in the design of 5G NR communication systems.WG2
TD(23)06014Abuu. B. Kihero, Haji. M. Furqan, M. M. Şahin, Huseyin Arslan6G and Beyond Wireless Channel Characteristics for Physical Layer Security: Opportunities and ChallengesSecurity has emerged as one of the critical re-quirements in future wireless networks. Unlike traditional cryptography-based security, physical layer security (PLS) tends to exploit various features of the random wireless channel to secure not only the information being communicated but the whole communication process from any type of attack. Due to the limited capability of the legacy wireless networks, only a few channel features could be effectively exploited for PLS. Future wireless networks are envisioned to feature advanced transceiver technologies, signal processing techniques, channel control, and sensing capabilities which will allow them to easily access and extract additional channel features that can be readily exploited for PLS. The novel use cases to be accommodated in future networks are also found to experience some peculiar channel characteristics which also enrich the list of channel features that can be exploited for PLS. This article, thus, tends to highlight the opportunities and potential challenges of these new channel features from the PLS perspective. In the course of the article, the assessment of important qualities while selecting a certain channel feature for the PLS application is discussed. The importance of the channel control concept and sensing technologies for PLS is highlighted. Finally, the paper discusses the challenges and vulnerabilities of the channel-based PLS concept from which future research directions are derived.WG1
TD(23)06015Beniamin Pas, and Pawel KulakowskiPerformance of MAC Protocols for In-Body Terahertz Nano-NetworksIn the whole nano-communication research area, energy is a critically important factor, as the tiny nano-nodes must generate energy for themselves. Thus, each communication protocol for nano-networks, especially for in-body scenarios, should be designed very carefully having in mind the energy budget spent for the nano-device operations. In this document, we analyze MAC protocols suitable for in-body nano-networks. We review the existing solutions and validate the most promising ones with computer simulations. The result show that, even in conditions with very limited energy available, three protocols namely: random access, receiver initiated handshake and two-way handshake can obtain satisfactory results.WG3,VT1
TD(23)06016Hong Zhu, Alexander Venus, Erik Leitinger, Stefan Tertinek,  and  Klaus WitrisalDistributed UWB Signal Processing for Robust and Scalable PositioningThis paper addresses the pivotal challenge of achieving reliable and robust positioning of mobile agents, such as individuals carrying devices, in scenarios where direct line-of-sight (LOS) communication with ultra-wideband (UWB) anchors is obstructed or unavailable. We present a novel approach that combines active LOS measurements from the agent with passive monostatic/bistatic radar measurements, exploiting the human body as an extended blocking object that scatters and attenuates UWB signals during blockages.
Our work introduces comprehensive radio channel models for active and passive signals, formulating a Bayesian tracking framework that exploits data association for multiple object-related measurements. Simulations affirm the virtue of our method, demonstrating superior accuracy even during complete LOS outages, outperforming conventional methods reliant solely on direct active measurements. Future direction will extend this framework to accommodate time-varying extent states of the human body as well as kinematic attributes. In conclusion, our proposed joint estimation framework exhibits substantial promise in surmounting obstruction challenges, significantly enhancing localization reliability via radio sensing.
TD(23)06017Wijdan K. Alsaedi Hamed Ahmadi, Zaheer Khan, and David GraceSpectrum Options and Allocations for 6G: A Regulatory and Standardization ReviewThe upcoming sixth generation (6G) mobile communication system is expected to operate
across a wide range of spectrum that includes not only the bands used by previous generations but also
higher frequency bands such as millimeter wave (mmWave), which are currently assigned to fifth generation
(5G) networks, terahertz (THz), and optical spectrum. By utilizing a broader range of frequencies, it will be
possible to support 6G applications with faster data rates, higher capacity, and lower latency. However, the
higher frequency bands pose unique challenges such as higher path loss, absorption loss, and engineering
difficulties for antennas and radio frequency (RF) circuitry design, which require advanced technologies
and innovative solutions. Given that the spectrum is a scarce resource, efficient management is crucial to
ensure the most effective exploitation of frequency bands. The spectrum management has evolved over the
years, with different approaches being used to assign and utilize frequency bands. In this paper, we provide
a review of spectrum management approaches, including their use in awarding 5G spectrum, and explore
their expected use in 6G. We then offer a brief overview of spectrum sharing and its role in enabling the
efficient use of spectrum resources. The regulations, standardization, features, limitations, and potential use
cases of higher frequency bands such as, mmWave, THz, and visible light (VL) are analyzed to provide
a comprehensive understanding of the spectrum options available for the upcoming 6G technology
TD(23)06018Swarna B. Chetty, Hamed Ahmadi , Avishek NagDynamic Prioritization and Adaptive Scheduling using Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient for Deploying Microservice-based VNFs—The Network Function Virtualization (NFV)-
Resource Allocation (RA) problem is NP-Hard. Traditional
deployment methods revealed the existence of a starvation
problem, which the researchers failed to recognize. Basically,
starvation here, means the longer waiting times and eventual rejection of low-priority services due to a ‘time out’.
The contribution of this work is threefold: a) explain the
existence of the starvation problem in the existing methods
and their drawbacks, b) introduce ‘Adaptive Scheduling’
(AdSch) which is an ‘intelligent scheduling’ scheme using a
three-factor approach (priority, threshold waiting time, and
reliability), which proves to be more reasonable than traditional methods solely based on priority, and c) a ‘Dynamic
Prioritization’ (DyPr), allocation method is also proposed for
unseen services and the importance of macro- and microlevel priority. We presented a zero-touch solution using
Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) for adaptive
scheduling and an online-Ridge Regression (RR) model for
dynamic prioritization. The DDPG successfully identified
the ‘Beneficial and Starving’ services, efficiently deploying
twice as many low-priority services as others, reducing the
starvation problem. Our online-RR model learns the pattern
in less than 100 transitions, and the prediction model has an
accuracy rate of more than 80%.
TD(23)06019Mar Francis De Guzman, Katsuyuki HanedaAnalysis of Wave-interacting Objects in Indoor and Outdoor Environments at 142 GHzIn this paper, an analysis of wave-object interactions is presented for an entrance hall and on a street of a residential area at 142 GHz. Single-directional channel sounding and the resulting spatio-temporal propagation path estimates are fused with the detailed geometry of the environment through a ray-launcher. The improved ray-launcher accounts for higher-order reflections and realizes high correspondence of the measured paths on the geometry, allowing us to analyze wave-object interaction. In channels without line-of-sight, first and second-order reflections contribute about 60% of the total power. Large interior and exterior walls of buildings are found most influential to the multipath channel. About half of the total received power in some links can be attributed to the reflections on small objects such as pillars and staircases in indoor and lampposts in outdoor cases. While large objects produce most of the clusters to the channel, there are links where small objects generate up to four clusters. The obtained knowledge of wave-object interaction at 142 GHz serves as guidelines to set up site-specific and geometry-based channel modeling at the frequency.WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)06020Mar Francis De Guzman, Nuutti Tervo, Pekka Kyösti, Katsuyuki HanedaAnalyses of Beamspace MIMO Channels at 142 GHzWith the increasing demand for high-speed wireless communication, beamspace MIMO has emerged as a promising solution to address the high propagation loss and achieve good spectral efficiency in sub-Terahertz frequency band. This paper presents the analyses of a single-user beamspace MIMO on measured indoor and outdoor channels operating at 142 GHz. The capacity and rank of the system are evaluated under different antenna sizes and number of beams. We assume a total power constraint at the transmitter which results in a decrease in signal-to-noise ratio as the link distance increases. In most cases, the rank especially at short-distance links is considerably high resulting in increased capacity gain of using spatial multiplexing. We also report that the average rank at the farthest link distance considered is approximately 2 and 4 for the small antenna and large antenna cases. Increasing the implementation complexity by enabling a higher number of beams can provide improved rank and hence higher spectral efficiency.WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)06036Yang Miao, Minseok Kim, Chiachia Kang, Naoya Suzuki, Junichi TakadaMmWave Human Body Scattering and Blockage Measurement Using Dual-Band Distributed BeamformingThe millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands play important roles for wireless signalling with extremely high data rates for (beyond-)5G mobile systems and WiGig WLANs. These mmWave systems are designed for shorter transmission distances compared to that of the sub-6 GHz bands; their performances are easily impacted by the presence of human. MmWave integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) is one key feature for future 6G networks, aiming at sensing the human and the surrounding environment and simultaneously communicating to user equipment.
The impact of single human body blocking the direct path between mmWave transmitter and receiver has been investigated thoroughly in literature; the effect of multiple human bodies, acting as not only blocker but also reflector, is lacking in literature. Without such studies, it is difficult to guarantee the reliability of the mmWave communications, and also difficult to move forward the ISAC research where both the communication and radar channels are required.
To this end, in this paper, we present our distributed multi-static double-directional measurement using a 24/60-GHz dual-band channel sounder based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) beamforming phased arrays. We perform novel measurements with the presence of multiple persons (up to 3 persons) standing at diverse location and holding various facing directions. We analyze the measured data with regard to the human-induced power in the angular-delay domain for the 2*2 distributed MIMO links at the concurrent dual bands. Numerical examples will be provided in this paper and insights will be discussed.
TD(23)06022CheChia Kang, Xin Du, and Jun-ichi TakadaEquivelent Edge Currents based Forward Scattering Prediction for Complex Circumference of the Cross-section of Human Body at 300 GHz BandThe broad bandwidth availability of sub-THz band enables the next generation of mobile systems. Because of the usage of the high-gain antennas, the communication link is highly directive and depends on the line-of-sight (LoS) channel. As one of the main challenges, the LoS channel can be easily shadowed. Due to the short wavelength, even a limb can obstruct the first Fresnel zone and can cause deep fading occasionally. When the obstacle has well-defined edges, the knife-edge diffraction (KED) and the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) are useful. However, the shape of human body is complex and lacks well-defined edges. This paper aims to propose a channel model based on the windowed equivalent edge currents (EECs) defined by the modified edge representation (MER) for predicting the shadowing gain of the human body with the complex-shaped circumference of the cross-section (CCS).WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)06023Steffen Pahlke, Tommaso Zugno, Mate Boban, Diego Dupleich, Thomas KürnerRay tracing and measurement-based characterization of inter/intra-machine THz wireless channelsWe make use of channel measurements and ray tracing simulations to characterize wireless propagation at 300 GHz in an industrial environment. We consider two different scenarios representing wireless connections between access points and industrial machines, and between two components inside the same machine. For each scenario, we compute the channel response in terms of power-angle-delay profile and compare the results obtained through measurements and simulations.WG1,Sub-WG1.1,VT3
TD(23)06024Werner G. Teich, Thanawat ThiasiriphetChirp-Spreaded OFDM-MFSK with Differentially Encoded Phase for Applications in Low-Power Wide-Area NetworksFor the unlicensed frequency bands, long-range wide-area networks (LoRaWAN) is a widespread solution for low-power wide-area networks. The physical layer of LoRaWAN is long range (LoRa) which uses a combination of chirp spread spectrum (CSS) and M-ary frequency-shift keying (M-FSK) for transmission. LoRa is known to be highly robust and well-suited for low-complexity implementation, but the weak aspect is its low spectral efficiency. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing M-FSK (OFDM-MFSK) is a technique which combines M-FSK with OFDM. The bandwidth is divided into several parallel M-FSK transmissions, i.e., more than one sub-carrier is active at a time. This leads to an increased peak-to-average power ratio of the transmit signal. On the other hand, it allows to combine OFDM-MFSK with differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) to increase the data rate and thus the spectral efficiency. The reception of OFDM-MFSK as well as the DPSK demodulation can be done non-coherently. Therefore, they hold many similar design principles as LoRa. We propose a combination of OFDM-MFSK with differentially encoded phase and CSS. Simulation results show, that LoRa and OFDM-MFSK with CSS show similar performance with respect to power and bandwidth efficiency. Adding DPSK leads to an improved spectral as well as power efficiency.WG2
TD(23)06025Minseok Kim, Riku Takahashi, Anirban GhoshDouble-Directional Channel Measurements in an Indoor Corridor Scenario at 300 GHzAs commercial deployment of fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication systems using the Sub-6 GHz and 28
GHz millimeter wave bands expands, industry and academia are increasingly chaging their attention to the development and realization of next-generation communication systems beyond 5G (B5G). Future mobile networks and other ubiquitous applications are expected to utilize the THz band (100 GHz to 10 THz) due to stringent requirements in terms of data transfer rate, response delay, service reliability, and communication security. This paper presents the double-directional channel measurement campaign conducted in a corridor scenario using the developed 300 GHz channel sounder and the channel characterization results.
TD(23)06026Robin Wydaeghe, Sergei Shikhantsov, Emmeric Tanghe, Günter Vermeeren, Luc Martens, Piet Demeester, Wout JosephNew Hybrid QuaDRiGa-FDTD Method for Realistic Human Exposure Assessment at 28 GHz with 6G Cell-Free Massive MIMO in 3D Outdoor EnvironmentsA new computational method for realistic exposure assessment is presented for millimeter-wave 5G and 6G networks. For
5G, collocated Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) base stations beamform the signal toward the user and create hotspots of increased exposure. For 6G, cell-free Massive MIMO (MaMIMO) networks use a large
number of access points (APs) distributed over the urban landscape. The propagation of the fields through the environment is hybridized with the computation of the exposure on a virtual human. A trajectory from Google Maps between any two addresses in the world is placed in a 3D semantically labeled mesh from Google Earth. In the propagation step, APs are distributed on the faces of buildings using Poisson Disk sampling. This data is used by QuaDRiGa, a powerful quasi-deterministic channel generator, to obtain channel realizations as a function of time.
After precoding the signal, the total fields are evaluated on a Huygens surface around the head of a detailed virtual phantom.
These form the input to the exposure step, where an FDTD simulation is performed. A post-processing step yields the surface absorbed power density at 28 GHz. The method is applied to a walk through central Helsinki. The range of exposure from a 5G collocated base station is 100 times (20 dB) higher than that of a cell-free MaMIMO network. A precoding gain of up to 20 dB is observed only for the beamforming collocated base station.
TD(23)06027Amar Al-Jazri,  Jiahao Ju, Sana SalousIndoor measurements and models for 6GFrequencies in the sub THz bands are envisaged for future wireless communications. This requires propagation models to predict coverage. The wideband channel sounder at Durham University was recently upgraded to cover the frequency bands 110 to 170 GHz and 235 to 300 GHz. The TD will present results of measurements in typical indoor environments.WG1
TD(23)06037Yang Miao, Carsten SmeenkWhat is the definition of ISAC from COST INTERACT?We shall define together our ISAC use case scenarios, channel measurement scenarios, ISAC channel models, ISAC system prototypes, waveform and signal processing pipelines. In this TD, we list a few starting points for discussions, and will prompt the discussions and collaborations for moving towards a joint output for future whitepaper and survey.Sub-WG2
TD(23)06038Barış Fındık, Pekka Kyösti, Peize ZhangA channel model modification for large arrays, large bandwidth, and near-field effectsThis document introduces a simple modification to geometry based channel models to incorporate spherical wavefronts, frequency dependent array responses, and frequency dependent Doppler components. These effects may become relevant on large array sizes, large bandwidth, and small link distances. In the proposed modification per antenna propagation distances are determined and used instead of mere phase phase shifts, as is done in most geometry based stochastic models.WG1
TD(23)06039Remco Heijs, Gerhard Steinböck, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Bart SmoldersOn the Importance of Scattering From Poles in Ray Tracing SimulationsFor enhancing the latest mobile networks, a more precise approximation of ray propagation in complex environments is necessary to position the base stations and optimize network performance. The scattering from a cylindrical metallic object, which could represent lampposts, poles of traffic signs or trashcans, is implemented in ray tracing simulations. In this paper, the addition of cylindrical metallic objects in ray tracing simulations is done via analytically derivable radar cross-sections. Furthermore, objects are decomposed to utilize plane wave excitation in the near field of the object.
Implementing this approach results in an augmentation in the channel richness and increases the best available path gain. The comparison of simulation results to measurements clearly indicates that poles contribute significantly and should not be ignored in raytracing simulations.
TD(23)06040Alister Burr, Abigail Elcock and Junbo ZhaoBussgang revisited: effect of quantization on signal to distortion plus noise ratioQuantization plays an important role in the physical layer (PHY) disaggregation which is fundamental to the Open Radio Access Network (O-RAN) architecture, since digitized signals must be transmitted over fronthaul connections. In this paper we explore the effect of quantization on PHY performance, drawing on the Bussgang decomposition and the implications of the Bussgang theorem and extending it to the case of non-Gaussian signals. We first prove several theorems regarding the signal to distortion plus noise ratio for a general non-linearity, applicable to both the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian case, showing that the decomposition can be applied to the non-Gaussian case, but that formulae previously introduced should be amended. We then apply these results to the non-linearity created by quantization, both for Gaussian and non-Gaussian signal distributions, and give numerical results derived from both theory and simulation.WG2
TD(23)06041Botond Tamás Csathó, Zsolt Badics, József Pávó and Bálint Péter HorváthFast Numerical Analysis of Metasurfaces by Characteristic Basis Functions in EFIE FrameworkMetasurface-based reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) are able to actively control the reflection and refraction patterns on a surface to create a programmable and reconfigurable wireless propagation environment. A fast electric field integral equation formulation is developed here to model metasurface-field interactions for RISs. The novelty of the formulation is that it utilizes characteristic basis functions designed specifically for approximating surface current densities on metasurfaces, thereby significantly reducing the necessary number of unknowns and decreasing the solution time compared with employing the standard Method of Moments technique with Rao-Wilton-Glisson surface basis functions. In this work, we validate the novel numerical technique and demonstrate the substantial improvement in numerical performance utilizing a two-dimensional illustrative structure.WG1,Sub-WG1.2
TD(23)06042Joonas KokkoniemiAnalysis of RIS in Near Field Energies in LOS ChannelsThe reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are expected to be a cheap way to extend service areas of base stations. This is especially promising in the millimeter wave and THz bands (from 30 GHz to +300 GHz) where base station coverage is expected to be modest and suffer greatly from blockages. As the RISs can potentially be large (physically and via number of sub-elements), there is a good change that a user is in the near field of the RIS. This paper considers RIS near field propagation and achievable power levels close to these surfaces. Ideal energy levels are looked into among with the impact of beamforming and beam squinting. Human safety issues close to these surfaces are also analyzed from the energy density point of view. It is shown that the achievable received power in the near field are very good, but the beam squinting may have a significant impact on the received power and frequency response. We also conclude that RISs are safe for humans even at close proximity due to relatively large channel losses in the reflected channels and hence low power densities in the air.WG1,Sub-WG1.2
TD(23)06043Mohammed Mallik, Benjamin Allaert, Esteban Egea Lopez, Joe Wiart, Davy P. Gaillot and Laurent ClavierCOTANK: A Fast Method to Reconstruct Urban Electromagnetic Field Exposure by Matrix CompletionElectromagnetic field exposure (EMF) has grown to be a critical concern as a consequence of the ongoing installation of fifth-generation cellular networks (5G). The lack of measurements makes it difficult to estimate an electromagnetic field accurately in a specific urban area. Exposure map reconstruction techniques construct these maps from a collection of measurements recorded by spatially distributed sensors where large areas data are missing. To overcome this issue, The exposure map estimation task is addressed as an image inpainting/missing data imputation task. In this work, a matrix completion method using a convolutional neural tangent kernel (COTANK) is proposed to estimate EMF exposure from a few sensor measured values located in an urban environment. Experimental result shows that the kernel adapts to the propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic field from the sensor data producing accurate estimates, and is a promising solution for exposure map reconstruction.Sub-VT1
TD(23)06044S.Kodra , M.Barbiroli , E.M.Vitucci , F. Fuschini , V. Degli EspostiMm-wave building penetration losses: A measurement based critical analysisThe limited power-budget is known to be one of the main problems in mm-wave radio links, especially when
in-building applications are considered. In particular, outdoor-to-indoor and through-floor attenuation need to be analysed and carefully characterized at mm-waves in order to correctly approach both coverage and interference assessment problems. Surprisingly, only a few studies addressed the problem and no recommendation has been provided by standardization bodies so far for mm-wave through-floor attenuation in different building types. Therefore, a measurement campaigns at 28 and 38 GHz was carried out to investigate the aforementioned issues. It is observed that the in-building losses heavily depend on the building type and that modern construction techniques make through-floor propagation almost impossible. This fact highlights the need for standard models for mmwave through-floor propagation in different kinds of buildings.
TD(23)06045Michiel Sandra, Christian Nelson, Xuesong Cai, Fredrik Tufvesson, Anders J JohanssonWideband USRP-based Channel Sounder for Distributed Massive MIMOIn this work, we present the design and implementation of our distributed massive MIMO channel sounder with a bandwidth of 400 MHz, taking the state-of-the-art to the next level. Our design is based on the NI Universal Software Radio Peripheral X410 and utilizes multiple parallel RF chains, each connected to an RF switch, trading off the dynamic capability and cost. The channel sounder also features processing on the FPGA to limit the data stream to the host computer and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The whole implementation of the sounder is based the open-source USRP Hardware Driver and the RF Network on Chip (RFNoC) framework. Our current implementation is capable of measuring 7686 antenna combinations in 44 ms and has been validated by a demo measurement in our laboratory.WG1
TD(23)06046A.Frömming, S. Diederich, L. Häring and A. CzylwikClipping noise mitigation for coherent OFDM systems using decision-aided reconstruction combined with neural networksThis paper introduces a novel algorithm for mitigating clipping noise at the receiver end of a coherent transmission system.WG2
TD(23)06047Simona Valbonesi, Andrea Garzia, Elena Mammi, Nerea Canales Sebastian, Marcella Di Mario, Mirko ErminiRay-tracing simulation of railway station ecosystem in 5G scenarioThe railway station environment is complex and characterized by communication needs of different types, which can be satisfied efficiently by modern technology. The specific characteristics of 5G technology make it extremely suitable to support a multitude of use cases including the specific requirements of the railway station ecosystem. For this study, the pioneering band for 5G in the European Union, 3.7 GHz, will be considered. This band represents a good compromise between capacity and coverage; indeed, with these frequencies it is possible to obtain wide coverage, deep indoor environments excluded, and an adequate transmission capacity. The medium band frequencies, therefore, lend themselves to responding to the different requirements of the 5G scenarios. The objective of the current analysis is the evaluation of the coverage of the stations through 5G networks: a calculation methodology based on ray-tracing simulations will be used to analyze the coverage of a railway station by a public 5G network and verify if this coverage can satisfy the diagnostics related use cases and, if necessary, to deploy low/very low power femtocells in strategic points to obtain ubiquitous coverage. The use of femtocells non-public network (NPN) can represent a reliable and scalable solution to any coverage problems in railway station scenarios.Sub-VT1,VT2
TD(23)06049Fred Wagen and Yann MaretSmall Ad-Hoc MANET: simulations and measurementsFrom the perspective of a group of users using ad-hoc Vehicular to Vehicular (V2V) or MANET communication, the optimization of radio resources depends on the service or application. Considering the completion ratio for a given user traffic requires to trade-off reliable routes with congestion on these “good” routes. How to optimise routing and scheduling in time varying environments is particularly complex. Datasets are missing to investigate and quantify the performance in realistic scenarios. This TD discuss our experiences with two MANETs:  (1) 24 vehicles in the open source Anglova.net scenario and (2) 6 laptops moving by pair in a school building. Multi-user system level simulations and measurements, Delivery Ratio and Goodput using so-called Abstract PHY radio models, are presented to evaluate the interest of the COST INTERACT community in the datasets we plan to provide.WG1,WG3,HA1
TD(23)06050Flor Ortiz, Nicolas Skatchkovsky, Eva Lagunas, Wallace A. Martins, Geoffrey Eappen, Saed Daoud, Osvaldo Simeone, Bipin Rajendran, and Symeon ChatzinotasEnergy-Efficient On-Board Radio Resource Management for Satellite Communications via Neuromorphic ComputingThe latest satellite communication (SatCom) missions are characterized by a fully reconfigurable on-board software-defined payload, capable of adapting radio resources to the temporal and spatial variations of the system traffic. As pure optimization-based solutions have shown to be computationally tedious and to lack flexibility, machine learning (ML)-based methods have emerged as promising alternatives. We investigate the application of energy-efficient brain-inspired ML models for on-board radio resource management. Apart from software simulation, we report extensive experimental results leveraging the recently released Intel Loihi 2 chip. To benchmark the performance of the proposed model, we implement conventional convolutional neural networks (CNN) on a Xilinx Versal VCK5000, and provide a detailed comparison of accuracy, precision, recall, and energy efficiency for different traffic demands. Most notably, for relevant workloads, spiking neural networks (SNNs) implemented on Loihi 2 yield higher accuracy, while reducing power consumption by more than 100$\times$ as compared to the CNN-based reference platform. Our findings point to the significant potential of neuromorphic computing and SNNs in supporting on-board SatCom operations, paving the way for enhanced efficiency and sustainability in future SatCom systems.WG1, WG2,WG3
TD(23)06051Salim Janji, Adrian KliksMulti-agent Q-learning for Drone Base StationsWe formulate a drone base stations (DBSs) localization problem that improves the users’ received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and the fairness between users in terms of receiving sufficient channel quality. In contrast to other works, our algorithm adapts to the actual users distribution on the ground without knowing their locations but rather their channel measurements history. We also leverage the fact that moving a DBS results in reduced aerodynamic energy consumption and illustrate that moving DBSs intelligently at a certain speed actually reduces energy consumption. We propose a multi-agent Q-learning formulation to solve this problem which requires less computation than its single agent counterpart and show by extensive simulations the improvements in terms of system fairness and link reliability relative to the benchmark solutions while leveraging a realistic users mobility model.WG1
TD(23)06052Marcin Hoffmann, Pawel KryszkiewiczOptimization of power amplifier IBO in Massive MIMO Network via Contextual Bandit and Deep Q networkMassive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MMIMO) constitutes a pivotal element within the realm of 5G. However, the most of research assumes perfect hardware characteristics. On the other hand, while aiming at high energy efficiency of the transmission the Radio Frequency components operate in a nonlinear regime, e.g., Power Amplifier. In MMIMO system it is possible that the nonlinear distortion will be directed towards the served user, independently from the number of utilized antenna elements. To address this concern, one potential solution involves dynamically adjusting the operational point of the PA, called Input Back-Off (IBO), finding a balance between the desired signal power and the nonlinear distortion power. This research introduces the Contextual Bandit to find the optimum IBO value. The viability of the proposed solution is assessed within a realistic MMIMO cell simulator encompassing various functional components such as precoders and user schedulers, using a precise 3D Ray-Tracing radio channel model. The proposed solution enhances users’ throughput in comparison to the state-of-the-art solutionsWG1
TD(23)06053Adam Samorzewski, Margot Deruyck, Adrian KliksEnergy Consumption in RES-aware 5G NetworksIn this work, the impact of using Renewable Energy Source (RES) generators in next-generation (5G) cellular systems on total power consumption (PC) has been investigated. The paper highlights the gain related to the use of photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines (WTs) in the form of two factors – the average extension of battery lifetime (AEBL) powering a single network cell and the average reduction in energy consumption (AREC) within the whole network. The examination has been conducted for four different seasons of the year and various configurations of available power sources. Provided system scenario was based on real data on weather conditions, buildings placement, and implemented mobile networks for the city of Poznan in Poland. Used RES generators were designed in accordance with the specifications of real devices. WG1