5th MC Meeting and 5th Technical Meeting – Barcellona, Spain, May 22-25

TD Number
TD Author
TD Title
TD Abstract
TD(23)05001Reiner S. Thom¨a, Carsten Andrich, Saw James Myint, Christian Schneider, Gerd SommerkornCharacterization of Multi-Link Propagation and Bistatic Target Reflectivity for Distributed ISACIntegrated sensing and communication (ISAC) qualifies mobile radio systems for detecting and localizing of passive objects by means of radar sensing. Advanced ISAC networks rely on meshed mobile radio access nodes (infrastructure and/or user equipment, resp.) establishing a distributed, multistatic MIMO radar system in which each target reveals itself by its bistatic backscattering. Therefore, characterization of the bistatic reflectivity of targets along their trajectories of movement is of highest importance for ISAC performance prediction. We summarize several challenges in bistatic modeling and measurement of extended, potentially time-variant radar targets. We emphasize the specific challenges arising for distributed (hence multi-link) ISAC networks and compare to the state of the art in propagation modeling for mobile communication.Sub-WG2
TD(23)05002Dong Yan, Ke Guan, Danping He, Junhyeong Kim, Heesang Chung, Dao Tian, Zhangdui Zhong, and Andrej HrovatBlockage Effects of Road Bridge on mmWave Channels for Intelligent Autonomous VehiclesVehicular communication and sensing technologies are key to enabling 6G Intelligent Autonomous Transportation
Systems (IATS). With the introduction of massive sensors and artificial intelligence (AI) fusion applications, IATS is needed to support data transmission rates up to 10 Gb/s. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) technology has attracted extensive attention owing to abundant spectrum resources, which can support the timely transmission of massive data. However, performance degradation of mmWave due to signal blockage has become one of the critical technical challenges. Road bridges as one of the common obstacles in urban scenarios, which has severe blockage effects on communication links. Therefore, this paper comprehensively studies the impact of road bridge blockage effects on mmWave vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) links and proposes an empirical model that can accurately characterize the bridge blockage effect. First, we use a self-developed mmWave channel sounder to carry out channel measurements on typical urban roads. Measurement results indicate that a maximum extra propagation loss of up to 23 dB is caused by road bridges. In addition, to address the deficiencies of existing propagation prediction models, the Single Road Bridge (SRB) model is proposed in this work. This model reveals for the first time the extra propagation loss caused by the road bridge to the channel. Compared with existing models,
the SRB model can make the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) within 5 dB. The proposed SRB model is of great value for accurately simulating real-world road bridge blockage events when designing future IATS.
TD(23)05003Andres Navarro, Leonardo Vargas and Christian Amu5G Optimization Model Formal Description Using MiniZincMiniZinc is an Open Source tool designed to model constraint satisfaction and optimization models in a high level, solver independent way. In this work, we propose a traditional optimization model for 4G/5G networks using a combination between a constraint based optimization and Lineal Integer Programming, combined with a planning tool that serves as the coverage cost function and some initial idea of Digital Twin. The main objective is to show the use of MiniZinc as modelling tool, independent of the solver and discuss the use of different solvers and an optimization model using distributed tools, which also could include Deep Learning.WG3,VT4
TD(23)05004Nicolas Salazar, Juan Gallo and Andres NavarroFiltering Techniques Comparison in Gait Analysis using Depth CamerasDuring the gait analysis using depth cameras, a filtering process is applied before procesing the signals, in order to reduce noise, fill null data and improve the gait parameters extraction. Such filtering process may alter the signal in a non desirable way and we consider important to verify if the processing we are using is adequate. It means that reduces enough noise without altering the esential parameters of the signal. For such task, we use two algorithms and compare both, in order to decide which one is the most reliable for the gait variables extraction with high confidence. In this paper, we compare both methods (interpolation and mean average) using a Pearson correlation and continuous concordance test between the captured signals before filtering and after filtering for each filter type. We found that both filtering methods produce similar results and are reliable.VT1
TD(23)05005Nopphon Keerativoranan, Kentaro Saito, Jun-ichi TakadaNon-stationary Site-Specific to Standard Channel Parameter Mapping for Performance Evaluation of Wireless Channel EmulatorA wireless channel emulator (WCE) with a deterministic channel model has been recently developed for virtual drive testing the communication system in the site-specific scenario. Asserting the performance of communication links in a higher layer typically utilizes the standard channel model, and thus may not be applicable in predicting the site-specific fading characteristic. WCE requirement in real-time processing also introduces a challenge for performance evaluation with a non-standard deterministic channel via numerical computation. To address this issue, the parameter mapping technique is introduced to map the site-specific fading characteristic into the Rician fading channel model. Relationship between the site-specific fading parameters and the Rician’s power delay profile and Doppler power spectrum are analytically derived for the parameter mapping scheme in a narrowband and wideband channel. The simulation was conducted to comparatively evaluate the capability of the mapped Rician fading channel in producing the site-specific fading statistic in terms of time correlation and frequency correlation functions.WG1
TD(23)05006M. Drozdowska, S. J. Ambroziak,  K. K. Cwalina, P. Rajchowski, and N. CardonaChannel Impulse Response Measurements at mmWave Band in Office and Conference RoomsIn this paper, the measurements of the channel impulse response at mmWave band in office and conference rooms are described. The central frequency is 27 GHz with a bandwidth of 400 MHz. The description of the used measurement stand and considered environments are presented. The initial analysis of the power delay profile, mean delay, and RMS delay spread allow preliminary conclusions to be drawn that there is a significant impact of the dimensions of the rooms on these parameters.WG1
TD(23)05007Pawel Skokowski, Michał Kryk, Krzysztof Malon, Piotr Rajchowski, Krzysztof Maslanka, Jan M. KelnerPractical Trial for Low-Energy Effective Jamming on 5G Private NetworkFourth-generation mobile networks are successively replaced by fifth generation (5G) New Radio networks based on the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard. This standard is dedicated to civilian users, and the conducted analytical work shows that it has numerous technological gaps that prevent its direct implementation in military communication systems. From the military operation viewpoint, jamming of civil and military systems is one of the essential elements of electronic warfare. This paper focuses on a practical trial of low-energy effective jamming on 5G private network. The proposed method is based on jamming the 5G signal pilots. It characterizes by high energy efficiency and prevents establishing a connection between the user equipment and 5G base station (gNB). Energy savings allow the jammer to work longer and be implemented on a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which prevents uplink connection when placed near the gNB. On the other hand, the generation of low-power jamming signals in the gNB vicinity makes detecting the jammer by enemy electronic reconnaissance systems challenging. The proposed solution is compared with the test results for other types of jammingWG2
TD(23)05008Faruk Pasic, Markus Hofer, Mariam Mussbah, Herbert Groll, Thomas Zemen, Stefan Schwarz, Christoph F. MecklenbräukerStatistical Evaluation of Delay and Doppler Spreads in sub-6 GHz and mmWave High Speed ChannelsOne of the key research directions to increase the capacity of new radio (NR) vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication systems is extension of employed frequency bands from sub-6 GHz to millimeter wave (mmWave) range. To investigate different propagation effects between sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands in high-mobility scenarios, one needs to conduct channel measurements in both frequency bands. Using a suitable testbed setup to compare these two bands in a fair manner, we perform channel measurements at center frequencies of 2.55 GHz and 25.5 GHz, velocities of 50 km/h and 100 km/h, and at 126 different spatial positions. Furthermore, we conduct a comparative study of the multi-band propagation based on measurement results. We estimate the power delay profile (PDP) and the Doppler power spectral density (DSD) from a large set of measurements collected in a measurement campaign. Finally, we compare measured wireless channels at the two employed frequency bands in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) delay spread and RMS Doppler spread.WG1
TD(23)05009Parisis GALLOS, Rance DeLONG, Nicholas MATRAGKAS, Allan BLANCHARD, Chokri MRAIDHA, Gregory EPIPHANIOU, Carsten MAPLE, Konstantinos KATZIS, Jaime DELGADO, Silvia LLORENTE, Pedro MALÓ, Bruno ALMEIDA, Andreas MENYCHTAS, Christos PANAGOPOULOS, Ilias MAGLOGIANNIS, Petros PAPACHRISTOU, Mariana SOARES, PauMedSecurance Project: Advanced Security- for-Safety Assurance for Medical Device IoT (MIoT)The MedSecurance project, is an EU funded project focusing on identifying new challenges in cyber security with focus on hardware and software medical devices in the context of emerging healthcare architectures. In addition, the project will review best practice and identify gaps in the guidance, particularly the guidance stipulated by the medical device regulation and directives. Finally, the project will develop comprehensive methodology and tooling for the engineering of trustworthy networks of inter-operating medical devices, that shall have security-for-safety by design, with a strategy for device certification and certifiable dynamic network composition, ensuring that patient safety is safeguarded from malicious cyber actors and technology “accidents”. This work is co-funded by the HORIZON.2.1 – Health Programme of the European Commission, Grant Agreement number: 101095448 – Advanced Security-for-safety Assurance for Medical Device IoT (MEDSECURANCE).VT1
TD(23)05010Thomas Feys, Xavier Mestre, Emanuele Peschiera, François RottenbergDeep Unfolding for Fast Linear Massive MIMO Precoders under a PA Consumption ModelMassive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) precoders are typically designed by minimizing the transmit power subject to a quality-of-service (QoS) constraint. However, current sustainability goals incentivize more energy-efficient solutions and thus it is of paramount importance to minimize the consumed power directly. Minimizing the consumed power of the power amplifier (PA), one of the most consuming components, gives rise to a convex, non-differentiable optimization problem, which has been solved in the past using conventional convex solvers. Additionally, this problem can be solved using a proximal gradient descent (PGD) algorithm, which suffers from slow convergence. In this work, in order to overcome the slow convergence, a deep unfolded version of the algorithm is proposed, which can achieve close-to-optimal solutions in only 20 iterations as compared to the 3500 plus iterations needed by the PGD algorithm. Results indicate that the deep unfolding algorithm is three orders of magnitude faster than a conventional convex solver and four orders of magnitude faster than the PGD.WG2
TD(23)05011J.M. Molina-Garcia-Pardo, L. Rubio-Arjona, M. T. Martinez-Ingles, A. Mateo-Aroca, E. Egea-Lopez, Vicent-Miquel Peñarrocha and Juan ReigWireless Channel Characterization from 1 to 28 GHz in an outdoor parking-lotThis TD presents wideband measurement and simulations ranging from 1 to 30 GHz in a parking lot, considering the absence and presence of vehicles. Measurements have been carried out considering a transmitter in an elevated position, with omni antenna. Receivers have been spread in the parking using omni antennas also. Furthermore, the scenario has been simulated by means of OPAL open-source ray launching tool. CI, FI and ABC models have been considered, showing a consistent value of n withing frequency. The presence of cars does not affect much one path loss along all frequencies.WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)05012Anja Dakić, Benjamin Rainer, Markus Hofer, Thomas ZemenFrame Error Rate Prediction for Non-Stationary Wireless Vehicular Communication LinksWireless vehicular communication will increase the safety of road users. The reliability of vehicular communication links is of high importance as links with low reliability may diminish the advantage of having situational traffic information. The goal of our investigation is to obtain a reliable coverage area for non-stationary vehicular scenarios. Therefore we propose a deep neural network (DNN) for predicting the expected frame error rate (FER). The DNN is trained in a supervised fashion, where a time-limited sequence of channel frequency responses has been labeled with its corresponding FER values assuming an underlying wireless communication system, i.e. IEEE 802.11p. For generating the training dataset we use a geometry-based stochastic channel model (GSCM). We obtain the ground truth FER by emulating the time-varying frequency responses using a hardware-in-the-loop setup. Our GSCM provides the propagation path parameters which we use to fix the statistics of the fading process at one point in space for an arbitrary amount of time, enabling accurate FER estimation. Using this dataset we achieve an accuracy of 85 % of the DNN. We use the trained model to predict the FER for measured time-varying channel transfer functions obtained during a measurement campaign. We compare the predicted output of the DNN to the measured FER on the road and obtain a prediction accuracy of 78 %.WG1,VT2
TD(23)05014Mohammed Mallik, Esteban Egea-Lopez, Joe Wiart,Davy P. Gaillot, Laurent ClavierEME-CNTK : A fast method to reconstruct urban Electromagnetic Field Exposure by Matrix CompletionElectromagnetic field exposure (EMF) has grown to be a critical concern as a consequence of the ongoing installation of fifth-generation cellular networks (5G). The lack of measurements makes it difficult to accurately assess the electromagnetic field exposure in a specific urban area. Exposure map reconstruction techniques construct these maps from a set of measurements recorded by spatially distributed sensors. However, the spatial sampling rate is low. To overcome this issue, the exposure map estimation is addressed as an image inpainting/missing data imputation task. In this work, we use a convolutional neural tangent kernel (CNTK) for a fully connected and convolutional neural network in order to perform a matrix completion and estimate EMF exposure from a few sensor-measured values located in an urban environment. Experimental results show that the kernel adapts to the propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic field from the sensor data producing accurate estimates. It is a promising solution for exposure map reconstruction, which does not require training sets. The proposed method is compared with other machine learning approaches based on U-net and conditional generative adversarial networks, namely EME-Net and EME-GAN.Sub-VT1
TD(23)05015Anna-Malin Schiffarth, Jörg Pamp, Dirk HeberlingFuture exposure development with 5G massive-MIMO due to higher network utilisationIn order to predict the potential future development of instantaneous exposure considering the increased utilisation of 5G base stations at 3.6 GHz, long-term measurements have been performed using the selective radiation meter SRM-3006 at two base stations. Possible future utilisation scenarios have been simulated at three locations in the cell using a 5G-capable user equipment. The utilisation due to those usage scenarios indicates that the majority of currently feasible usage scenarios require only a minimal amount of data, resulting in a minimal increase in instantaneous exposure. However, generating high data rates, e.g. using Netflix services, results in a full utilisation of the site for a brief period of time. As the demand for such services will increase in the future, this will lead to a prolonged state of full site utilisation. If a Massive MIMO system is fully utilized by an active user requesting high data rates, the instantaneous exposure decreases significantly with increasing distance of the user to the measurement point. In terms of predicting future changes in instantaneous exposure, it can be concluded that upcoming applications will result in an increase in exposure for users, but this increase is expected to be lower with the use of massive-MIMO antennas compared to the use of passive antennas.WG1,Sub-VT1
TD(23)05016Yejian Lyu, Zhiqiang Yuan, Mengting Li, Allan Wainaina Mbugua, Pekka Ky¨osti, and Wei Fan Enabling Long-Range Large-Scale Channel Sounding at Sub-THz Bands: Virtual Array and Radio-Over-Fiber ConceptSub-Terahertz (sub-THz) (i.e., 100-300 GHz) communication is envisaged as one of the key building blocks for future communication systems due to its vast unexploited bandwidth. Knowledge of the radio channel characteristics is key to the design and development of new radio systems and air interfaces. Reliable channel sounding is essential to build accurate and realistic channel models. Virtual antenna array (VAA) has been a popular channel sounding strategy to obtain accurate directional characterization due to its low-cost and simple system
implementation. However, this concept has not yet been realized for sub-THz bands in the state-of-the-art works due to difficulty in accurate phase control. The measurement range has been rather limited at sub-THz due to significant signal loss, especially in the radio frequency (RF) cables, compared to microwave or millimeter-wave frequencies. In this paper, we focus on vector network analyzer (VNA)-based channel sounders, highlighting frequency extension with sub-THz frequency extenders, measurement range extension with radio-over-fiber (RoF) schemes, and angular resolution improvement by VAA implementation with phase-compensation scheme. These techniques enable and enhance sub-THz channel characterization. The performance of the proposed long-range phase-compensated sounder is also experimentally demonstrated by the VAA-based channel measurements
at 100 GHz in an indoor scenario.
TD(23)05017Yifa Li, Fengchun Zhang, Kim Olesen, Zhinong Ying, and Wei FanOver-the-Air Diagnosis of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface Based on Complex Signal MeasurementsThe reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), which
can reconfigure the radio propagation environment to a favorable state based on programmable metamaterial, is seen as a promising technology for 6G to improve wireless system performance. The RIS design should be cost-effective and it typically consists of a large number of RIS elements. RIS diagnosis, i.e. to identify the faulty RIS elements, is essential to ensure the RIS radiation charateristics. In this letter, a low-cost, robust, generic, fast, yet highly effective over-the-air (OTA) diagonsis method based on complex signal measurements is proposed to detect the faulty phase shifters in the passive RIS. The proposed algorithm only requires phase inversion operation (i.e. 0o and 180o phase states) for each RIS element, which is fast and supported by 1-bit RIS. The algorithm is experimentally validated using a 10×10 RIS prototype operating at 3.5 GHz in a near-field setup, demonstrating its effectiveness and robustness in practical setups.
TD(23)05018Zhiqiang Yuan, Jianhua Zhang, Vittorio Degli-Esposti, Yuxiang Zhang, and Wei FanEfficient Ray-tracing Simulation for Near-field Spatial Non-stationary mmWave Massive MIMO Channel and Its Experimental ValidationMassive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) at millimeter-Wave (mmWave) frequencies is
envisioned as a key technology for beyond 5G communication. Accurate channel modeling is essential for the design and evaluation of such systems. Ray-Tracing (RT) is employed for accurately simulating propagation channels. However, state-of-the-art RT for multi-antenna systems typically uses plane-wave extension under far-field conditions, which cannot capture Near-Field (NF) and Spatial non-Stationary (SnS) properties observed in measurements on real-world, mmWave massive MIMO systems. This work aims at massive MIMO RT simulations in an accurate and efficient manner. First, we employ the brute-force strategy to simulate channels for each array element to accurately capture the NF and SnS channel properties and provide a baseline to evaluate other methods. Second, a novel coarse-refinement
strategy is proposed. The channel is simulated using RT on a few sparsely located array elements and then interpolated onto other elements using spherical/astigmatic-wave approximations and the Uniform Theory of Diffraction, thus significantly reducing simulation complexity while maintaining accuracy. The proposed strategy is demonstrated to offer almost the same simulation accuracy as the brute-force method, with a dramatic reduction in simulation complexity through experimental validation, making it highly valuable for mmWave ultra-massive MIMO channel research.
TD(23)05019Cedric De Cock, Emmeric Tanghe, Wout Joseph, David PletsRobust IMU-based Mitigation of Human Body Shadowing in UWB Indoor PositioningUltra-wideband (UWB) indoor positioning systems have the potential to achieve sub-decimeter-level accuracy. However, the ranging performance degrades significantly under Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) conditions. Detection and mitigation of NLoS conditions is a complex problem, and has been the subject of many works over the past decades. When localizing pedestrians, human body shadowing (HBS) is a particular and specific cause of NLoS. In this paper, we present an HBS mitigation strategy based on the orientation of the body and tag relative to the UWB anchors. Our HBS mitigation strategy involves a robust range error model, interacting with a tracking algorithm. The model consists of a bank of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), from which an appropriate GMM is selected based on the relative body-tag-anchor orientation. The relative orientation is estimated by means of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) attached to the tag, and a candidate position  provided by the tracking algorithm. The selected GMM is used as likelihood function for the tracking algorithm to improve localization accuracy. Our proposed approach is realized for two tracking algorithms. We validate the implemented algorithms on dynamic UWB Two Way Ranging measurements, performed in an industrial lab environment. The proposed algorithms outperform other state-of-the art algorithms, achieving a 39 % reduction of the p75 error.WG2
TD(23)05020Valentina Timčenko, Sandra Lagén Morancho, Biljana Bojović, Katerina Koutlia,  Slavica Boštjančič Rakas, Carles Anton HaroAttack identification and classification in V2X scenariosThe latest technological advancements in the area of the vehicular wireless communications have enabled smooth, timely and location independent communication and exchange of information between vehicles and other vehicular communication elements, such as position and speed of the vehicle, traffic information, alarms, etc. This advanced concept is known as the vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication, and it encompasses techniques for safe and efficient operation of cooperative intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications. It enables real-time wireless communication between vehicles to vehicles (V2V), vehicles and infrastructure (V2I), and vehicles and pedestrians (V2P), paving the way towards full driving automation and advanced driver-assisted systems. There are numerous V2X-enabled services already implemented, covering mostly scenarios that rely on the need for efficient, real-time and secure traffic management (e.g., smart roads, smart cities). The V2X communication highly relies on wireless environment characteristics, which are vulnerable to unlawful interception, eavesdropping, hacking and a range of other cyber security issues. In this context, vehicles have to react in real time to changes in the driving environment, by exploiting complete environmental awareness obtained through secure V2X communication, with low latency, high reliability and high accuracy. This research is related to the analysis of the security and privacy concerns of the V2X scenarios, focusing on the diversity of the vulnerabilities, attacks, and the means for the network traffic attack detection and identification. It is based on the use of the 5G-LENA and NR V2X modules of the ns-3 discrete-event network simulator, openly available to the research community, for the exploration of V2X attack case studies scenarios.
This research provides the most relevant results from the STSM realized in the OpenSim Research Unit of CTTC (Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain) as a part of the cooperation with the Institute Mihajlo Pupin from Belgrade, Serbia, and supported by INTERACT COST 20120.
WG3,VT2, VT4
TD(23)05022Ebubekir Memisoglu, Talha Yılmaz, Huseyin ArslanWaveform Design with Constellation Extension for OFDM Dual-Functional Radar-CommunicationsOrthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is widely used and works efficiently for the communication, but emerging applications requires OFDM to be flexible to meet sensing requirements. The time-frequency waveform design of OFDM for dual-functional radar-communications (DFRC) is critical to achieve the future communication and sensing requirements. Therefore, we propose a novel method to minimize Cram´er-Rao bounds (CRBs) of the delay and Doppler estimation to improve radar performance of an OFDM DFRC system. Although some methods are proposed in the literature to improve the CRBs, these methods either require feedforward signaling or subcarrier reservation. However, it is possible to exploit the constellation extension of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) to achieve lower CRBs without these requirements. Therefore, the proposed method provides a transparent communication along with the CRB minimization for conventional OFDM systems. For the evaluation of the proposed method, CRB and symbol error rate (SER) are considered in the simulation results. Furthermore, the theoretical SER analysis of the proposed method is derived to understand the effects of CRB minimization on the communication performance.WG1,WG2,Sub-WG2
TD(23)05023Hamid Taramit, Luis Orozco Barbosa, Abdelkrim Haqiq, José Jaime Camacho Escoto, Javier GomezLoad-Aware Channel Allocation for Rayleigh Fading Wi-Fi HaLow NetworksMost wireless communication technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) applications face the bottleneck of dense and large-scale use cases. One solution to this problem is a periodic channel reservation strategy, in which only a small group of stations can compete for channel access during a given period. The IEEE 802.11ah standard, a.k.a. Wi-Fi HaLow, deploys this idea in its channel access protocol, named Restricted Access Window (RAW). A single RAW consists of one or more RAW slots during which only designated stations can contend for channel access. This paper considers an IEEE 802.11ah-based network with randomly distributed stations around the Access Point (AP), operating under a Rayleigh-fading channel with capture enabled. We develop an analytical model to evaluate the contention of a group of stations and propose a Load-Aware Channel Allocation (LACA) algorithm for the RAW slot period. The LACA algorithm ensures the delivery of all packets that designated stations carry, allowing for the allocation of load-aware RAW slots, which is effective in enhancing the Age of Information (AoI). Extensive simulations are used to validate our analytical results. We then evaluate the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and channel usage within a pre-allocated RAW slot to prove the effectiveness of our proposal. We further study the impact of the spatial distribution of the stations around the AP and the capture effect under a Rayleigh channel on the performance of the proposed LACA algorithm.WG3,VT4
TD(23)05025Florin Radu, Petru A. Cotfas, Marian Alexandru, Titus C. Bălan, Vlad Popescu and Daniel T. Cotfas Signals Intelligence System with Software-Defined RadioIn this paper, we present the implementation of a system that identifies the modulation of complex radio signals. This is realized using an artificial intelligence model developed, trained, and integrated with Microsoft Azure cloud. We consider that cloud-based platforms offer enough flexibility and processing power to use them instead of conventional computers for signal processing
based on artificial intelligence. We tested the implementation using a software-defined radio platform developed in GNU Radio that generates and receives real modulated signals. This process ensures that the solution proposed is viable to be used in real signal processing systems. The results obtained show that for certain modulation types, the identification is performed with a high degree of success. The use of a cloud-based platform allows quick access to the system. The user is able to identify the signal modulation using only a laptop that has access to the internet.
TD(23)05026Hamed Radpour, Markus Hofer, Lukas Walter Mayer, Andreas Hofmann, Martin Schiefer and Thomas ZemenActive Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for the Millimeter-Wave Frequency Band: System Design and MeasurementReconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) will play a key role to establish millimeter wave (mmWave) ultra-reliable low-latency communication systems for sixth-generation (6G) applications. Currently, there are a few working prototypes of
RISs operating in the mmWave frequency band and all of them are based on passive reflective elements. However, to fabricate an efficiently working RIS at mmWave frequencies, it is crucial to take care of the strong signal attenuation, reflective element losses and undesired radio frequency (RF) circuit effects. In this paper, we provide measurement campaign results for an active RIS in the mmWave frequency band as well as its analysis and system design. The obtained results demonstrate that an active RIS outperforms a RIS working in passive mode and provides a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). The active RIS consists of active reflective elements that amplify the impinging signal and reflect the signal to the desired beam direction. To obtain an efficient RIS in terms of power consumption and RIS state switch time, we design a hexagonal RIS with 37 elements working at 26 GHz. These elements are designed to work whether in passive state (binary phase shifting) or in active state (switch OFF or amplifying). We provide a comparison between the performance of a RIS working in passive and active mode using numerical simulations and empirical measurements. This comparison reveals that the active reflective intelligent surface (RIS) provides a received power that is at least 4 dB higher than that of the equivalent passive RIS. These results demonstrate the strong advantage of using active RISs for future ultra-reliable low-latency wireless communications.
TD(23)05027Dragana BajicOn telescopic scaling of splitting codesSplitting code (SpC) is defined on a finite ring Zp, where p = 2^m-1 and m is a binary size of ring elements. It is based on a process from discrete algebra called splitting: if S and E are subsets of an Abelian group G, and if every nonzero element g∈ G can be uniquely represented in the form s∙ε, where ε∈ E and s∈S, then E is a multiplier set that splits G with splitting set S, with a trivial case S=G and E={1}. In SpC code, the multiplier set comprises integer weights of errors that can be corrected within a single code symbol, while the splitting set splits the code word into sub-words. The code is scalable, but also offers telescopic properties: its shortening enables increased error correction without altering the coding and error-correcting procedures. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the level of increase depending on the type of modulo. Modulo can be p – a Mersenne prime and c – a composite Mersenne number if m is a prime but c is not. In both cases |Zp\{0}| (or |Zc\{0}|) =|E|∙|S|) according to Fermat’s little theorem (| | denotes cardinality). If m is a non-prime integer, modulo n is an ordinary Mersenne number, yielding SpC codes that require more truncation to achieve increased correction capability.WG2
TD(23)05028Wenfei Yang, Ziming Yu, Mate Boban, Jian LiIndoor Channel Measurements at 10 GHz with Extremely Large Antenna ArraysThis paper introduces initial measurements for Extremely large antenna array (ELAA) channel at 10 GHz in two indoor environments: meeting room and classroom. A single-input multiple-output (SIMO) configuration was adopted with a virtual ELAA formed by positioning an antenna along specified grids on the Rx side. The paper summarizes environments where the measurements were conducted, the setup of the equipment, and initial results on observed channel spectral characteristics.WG1
TD(23)05029Daniel Stanko, Michael Döbereiner, Gerd Sommerkorn, Daniel Czaniera, Carsten Andrich, Christian Schneider, Sebastian Semper, Alexander Ihlow, Markus LandmannTime Variant Directional Multi-Link Channel Sounding and Estimation for V2XWe present our new scalable multi-channel and multi-node sounder, the ILMSoundG3. It is configurable in terms
of the number of switched Tx and parallel Rx nodes. The basic structures of the Tx and Rx nodes are given with consideration of the measurement system requirements. The ILMSoundG3 is validated via a proof of concept measurement
at 2.53 GHz in an urban environment. The system was configured as a sounder with two Tx nodes and one Rx node,
which records two MIMO links simultaneously. Each node uses an antenna array. The transmitters were moved by cars whereas the receiver was elevated 20 m above the ground by a lifting platform acting as a base station. The used system configuration results in a snapshot rate of approx. 0.5 kHz, which covers the expected time variance of the chosen environment. The measurement results were analyzed using HRPE, providing a parametric description of the specular propagation paths of the radio channel per measurement link. Each estimated path is described by its directions of departure and arrival, delay, Doppler shift, and fully polarimetric complex path weights.
TD(23)05030Rubio, Lorenzo; Rodrigo-Peñarrocha, Vicent Miquel; Reig, Juan; Fernández, Herman; Pérez, Jesús Ramón; Torres, Rafael; Valle, LuisAnalysis of the Rician K-factor of a typical millimeter-wave office scenarioThe Rician K-factor is a measure of small-scale variations of the received signal in fading channels. In this work, the K-factor is estimated in a typical office environment based on channel measurements carried out in millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies, covering the 25-40 GHz spectrum, in both Line-Of-Sight (LOS) and obstructed-LOS (OLOS). The classical moment-based method has been used as an estimator of the K-factor applied over wideband measurement snapshots, comparing the values with those extracted from the Power Delay Profile (PDP) in a small local area around the receiver position. These results are particularized to the potential 26, 28, 33 and 38 GHz frequency bands for the design and deployment of the future wireless communications in mmWave frequencies.WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)05031Danilo Radovic, Faruk Pasic, Markus Hofer, Herbert Groll, Christoph F. Mecklenbräucker, and Thomas ZemenStationarity Evaluation of High-mobility sub-6 GHz and mmWave non-WSSUS ChannelsAnalysis and modeling of wireless communication systems are dependent on the validity of the wide-sense stationarity uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) assumption. However, in high-mobility scenarios, the WSSUS assumption is approximately fulfilled just over a short time period. This paper focuses on the stationarity evaluation of high-mobility
multi-band channels. We evaluate the stationarity time, the time over which WSSUS is fulfilled approximately. The investigation is performed over real, measured high-mobility channels for two frequency bands, 2.55 and 25.5 GHz. Furthermore, we demonstrate the influence of user velocity on the stationarity time. We show that the stationarity time decreases with increased relative velocity between the transmitter and the receiver. Furthermore, we show the
similarity of the stationarity regions between sub-6 GHz and mmWave channels. Finally, we demonstrate that the
sub-6 GHz channels are characterized by longer stationarity time.
TD(23)05032Saúl A. Torrico and Roger H. LangSpace Correlation Function in a 2D-Trunk Dominated Forest – Exact Solution vs. High Frequency Approximation SolutionWith the emergence of 5G wireless communications networks to be deployed in forested areas, there is the need to assess and improve the communication of these systems. One way of improving it is by using MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antennas to maximize the capacity of the system; the improvements therefore should not come just by meeting the required loss between the transmitter and the receiver, but should come from the possibility of using space diversity antennas at the receiver site. From this point of view, it is important to understand the space correlation function of the propagation channel. The objective of this presentation is to compare the exact solution with the high frequency approximation solution of a stochastic radiowave propagation model useful for assessing the effects of a 2D-trunk dominated forest on the space correlation function of a 5G communication system at the high frequency bands.WG1
TD(23)05033Marco Skocaj, Pedro Enrique Iturria Rivera, Roberto Verdone, Melike Erol-KantarciUplink Scheduling in Federated Learning: an Importance-Aware Approach via Graph Representation LearningFederated Learning (FL) has emerged as a promising framework for distributed training of AI-based services, applications, and network procedures in 6G. One of the major challenges affecting the performance and efficiency of 6G wireless FL systems is the massive scheduling of user devices over resource-constrained channels. In this work, we argue that the uplink scheduling of FL client devices is a problem with a rich relational structure. To address this challenge, we propose a novel, energy-efficient, and importance-aware metric for client scheduling in FL applications by leveraging Unsupervised Graph Representation Learning (UGRL). Our proposed approach introduces a relational inductive bias in the scheduling process and does not require the collection of training feedback information from client devices, unlike state-of-the-art importance-aware mechanisms. We evaluate our proposed solution against baseline scheduling algorithms based on recently proposed metrics in the literature. Results show that, when considering scenarios of nodes exhibiting spatial relations, our approach can achieve an average gain of up to 10\% in model accuracy and up to 17 times in energy efficiency compared to state-of-the-art importance-aware policies.WG3
TD(23)05034Amar Al-Jazri and Sana SalousMeasurements and path loss models for 6GFrequencies in the sub THz bands are envisaged for future wireless communications. This requires propagation models to predict coverage.  The wideband channel sounder at Durham University was recently upgraded to cover the frequency bands 110 to 170 GHz and 235 to 300 GHz. Measurements in typical environments were conducted at 145 GHz and path loss parameters estimated. The TD will present results of Measurements in outdoor LoS and NLoS scenarios.WG1
TD(23)05036Thomas Wilding, Benjamin J. B. Deutschmann, Christian Nelson, Xuhong Li, Fredrik Tufvesson, Klaus WitrisalPropagation Modeling for Physically Large Arrays: Measurements and Multipath Component VisibilityThis paper deals with propagation and channel modeling for physically large arrays. The focus lies on acquiring a spatially consistent model, which is essential, especially for positioning and sensing applications. Ultra-wideband, synthetic array measurement data have been acquired with large positioning devices to support this research. We present a modified multipath channel model that accounts for a varying visibility of multipath components along a large array. Based on a geometric model of the measurement environment, we analyze the visibility of specular components. We show that, depending on the size of the reflecting surface, geometric visibility and amplitude estimates obtained with a super-resolution channel estimation algorithm show a strong correspondence. Furthermore, we highlight the capabilities of the developed synthetic array measurement system.WG1,Sub-WG1.2,WG2
TD(23)05037Ana Valenzuela-Pérez       David Pérez-Díaz-de-Cerio       Silvia Ruiz Boqué     Mario García-LozanoA BLE Mesh Based Testbed System for Cyclists SafetyAccording to the European Road Safety Observatory, annual cyclist fatalities account for 2035 in 2019 (41% in rural areas), and the number of serious injuries is more than 30000. Innovative automotive systems and road solutions have been proposed to address many safety and emergency issues. These solutions usually include the introduction of sensors and wireless network communications, based majority on 5G, and lately 6G, or 802.11p technologies. However, mobile communication systems coverage in rural areas outside sparsely populated population centers is deficient. This causes many stretches, some very extensive, of rural and mountain roads to have no type of connectivity, which can create problems in terms of communication, navigation, and accessing emergency services. This paper proposes the use of Bluetooth technology to solve the lack of connectivity, implementing a real testbed and analyzing some key indicators as the coverage radio, packet error rate, and delay.WG3,VT2
TD(23)05038Javier Otero Martínez, Ana García ArmadaLiquid Antenna Channel Modelling: Spatial CorrelationReconfigurable antennas are expected to play an important role in present and future communication systems. Following that trend, liquid antennas are able to change their topology in order to match different specifications and requirements. Unfortunately, it turns out that fewer details in hardware may imply that our current channel models cannot be applied successfully in this context. In particular, spatial correlation is key to understanding how this reconfiguration can be achieved and its strengths and limitations.WG1
TD(23)05039Eric Pierre Simon, Pierre Laly, Joumana Farah, Emmeric Tanghe, Wout Joseph, Davy Paul GaillotMeasurement of the V2I Channel in Cell-free Vehicular Networks with the Distributed MaMIMOSA Channel SounderIn this TD, we present a small, yet realistic, vehicular cell-free massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) architecture deployed at the University of Lille in a typical suburban environment under both Line-of-Sight (LOS) and obstructed LOS (OLOS) shadowing conditions. The radio channels were
acquired with a distributed RF-over-Fiber (RoF) upgrade of the real-time channel sounder MaMIMOSA. The system operates
at 5.89 GHz with an 80 MHz bandwidth, which corresponds to the ITS frequency band offered by the ITS-G5 and CV2X
technologies. Four omnidirectional receive antennas were placed on the roof of a van moving at a speed of 25 km/h.
The propagation channel was measured for various transmit antenna configurations, ranging from co-located antennas to fully
distributed antennas. The measurement results show a significant gain in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as a more uniform
coverage and smaller delay spread values with the distributed scenarios compared to the centralized ones. Finally, the path loss
measurement results obtained for the cell-free network provide deployment guidelines for the distributed antennas.
TD(23)05040Mamadou NGOM – Laurent CLAVIER – Malcolm EGANReliability control in IoT networks with a mixture of exponentials as interference modelIn a context of low latency and high density of connected objects, ensuring global system coordination is not realistic. Under these conditions, the interference can vary significantly from one packet to another. We propose a method to choose a robust communication scheme in this type of environment. For this purpose, we model the interference by a mixture of exponentials. To ensure the reliability of the estimation of the mixture parameters, we use a bootstrap method. This allows us to choose the parameters of the transmission in order to ensure a probability of success on the transmitted packets.WG2
TD(23)05041Sławomir J. Ambroziak, Krzysztof K. Cwalina, Manuel M. Ferreira, Filipe D. Cardoso, Luis M. CorreiaSystem Loss Model for Body-to-Body Networks in Indoor and Outdoor EnvironmentsA system loss model for body-to-body networks in indoor and outdoor environments is proposed in this paper, based on measurements taken at 2.45 GHz. The influence of the type of environment, antenna visibility and user mobility on model parameters has been investigated. A significant impact of mutual antennas’ placement and their visibility is shown. The proposed model fits well to empirical data, with the average root mean square error being 2.1 dB and the coefficient of determination being above 0.6 in the majority of cases. For designing purposes in generalised cases, it is recommended that the system loss exponent is set to 1.5, and the system loss at the reference distance is equal to 55.9 dB.VT1
TD(23)05042Syed Najaf Haider Shah, David Martín-Sacristán, Carlos Ravelo, Carsten Smeenk, Christian Schneider, Joerg RobertRadar-Enabled Resource Allocation in 5G-V2X Sidelink CommunicationIntegrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) has emerged as a key technology in future cellular networks as it allows the integration of radar sensing capabilities into mobile networks by sharing the same spectral and hardware resources. This paper discusses the integration of radar sensing capabilities into 5G Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) sidelink communication to enable an ISAC-capable 5G-V2X system that requires high-precision radar sensing and highly reliable communication among vehicles and road infrastructure. To meet these requirements in a high-density environment where target objects are moving in close proximity to one another, a radio resource allocation algorithm, based on the sensing-based semi-persistent scheduling (SB-SPS) scheme, has been proposed that allocates additional available time and frequency (bandwidth) resources to the transmitting vehicle for high-resolution radar sensing. Further, to reduce the channel occupancy generated by the transmitting vehicle by occupying the additional resources to perform radar sensing tasks, the approach reserves only the communication resources for future transmissions. The proposed approach is evaluated through a set of performance metrics of both radar sensing and communication including the probability of detection, root mean squared error (RMSE) of range and velocity estimation of target objects under line-of-sight (LOS) conditions, and packet reception ratio. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach allows each vehicle to perform radar sensing while maintaining good communication performance.Sub-WG2
TD(23)05043Christina Larsson, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Henrik AsplundFeasibility of High Throughput Wireless Communication Above 100 GHz in Indoor ScenariosIn this paper, we compare measured pathloss results from two indoor scenarios at 143 GHz with a simplified link budget to visualize the feasibility of high throughput wireless communication at these high frequencies. The paper concludes that the high-throughput communication can be achieved in indoor open areas, even if the Tx and Rx is not in LOS, but the increased penetration loss at these high frequencies together with a limited link budget make coverage though even thin indoor walls difficult and hence coverage predictions without floorplans difficult. The high penetration losses must also be considered if indoor stochastic propagation models above 100 GHz should be developed.WG1
TD(23)05044Lianet Méndez-Monsanto Suárez, Kun Chen-Hu, M. Julia Fernández-Getino García, Ana García ArmadaOrthogonal Time Frequency Space with Superimposed Pilots for Integrated Sensing and CommunicationsEmerging fifth generation (5G) and beyond technologies promise to operate in non-trivial high mobility conditions, such as in vehicle-to-vehicle communications scenarios or high-speed rail. In addition, the increasing demand for capacity and bandwidth leads to the use of higher frequencies. Under these conditions, the current orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform has severe limitations. This motivates research into new robust waveforms, such as the promising orthogonal time-frequency space (OTFS), which uses the delay-Doppler domain. This waveform can also be exploited for the so-called integrated sensing and communications (ISAC), which further expands the range of possible new services. However, OTFS suffers from a large pilot overhead in channel estimation. In this paper, we propose a channel estimation and sensing technique based on OTFS and superimposed training (ST) to eliminate the pilot overhead while maintaining an affordable computational complexity.Sub-WG2
TD(23)05045François De Saint Moulin, Christophe Craeye, Luc Vandendorpe, Claude OestgesNovel Electromagnetism-Based Radar Propagation Model for 5G and BeyondIn order to evaluate the performance of radar and communication systems in future wireless networks, accurate propagation models are needed to predict efficiently the received powers at each node, and draw correct conclusions. In this paper, we present a new radar propagation model based on the electromagnetism theory. It makes the link between the radar equation and the geometrical optics propagation model used in ray-tracing applications, and gives clues about the radar cross section modelling. It is then applied to popular automotive scenarios within the stochastic geometry framework to observe the impact of such modelling.WG1,Sub-WG2
TD(23)05046Adrian Agustin, Xavier MestreNear-Field MIMO Performance in Indoor ScenariosWe consider an Extra Large Aperture Array  deployed in a indoor scenario and review the degrees of freedom of this system, taking into account the position of the antenna panel and the impact of the ground floor, or the walls on the system performance and its dependence with the communication region (near-field, intermediate-region or far-field). Furthermore, we analyze which is the received power level per antenna as a function of the user position in order to  devise efficient methods to select antennas and design transceivers.WG1,WG2
TD(23)05047Flor Ortiz, Eva Lagunas, Symeon ChatzinotasEnergy and Performance Efficiency for On-Board Radio Resource Management in Satellite Communication Systems Using Neuromorphic Processors and Spiking Neural NetworksIn satellite communication systems, efficient utilization of radio resources is critical for maximizing the quality of service and reducing operational costs. Recent advances in neuromorphic computing have shown promising results in various domains, including image and speech recognition, but their potential for radio resource management in satellite communication systems is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we evaluate the performance of two popular neural network architectures, namely, convolutional neural network (CNN) and spiking neural network (SNN), for on-board radio resource management in satellite communication systems. We compare the performance of these networks in terms of throughput and energy consumption when implemented on an AI accelerator (VCK5000) and a neuromorphic processor (Loihi 2). Our experimental results show that SNNs outperform CNNs in terms of throughput and energy consumption. Furthermore, we demonstrate that neuromorphic processors offer significant advantages in terms of processing time and energy consumption compared to traditional computing architectures, which makes them a promising candidate for on-board radio resource management in satellite communication systems.WG1,WG2,WG3
TD(23)05048Daniele Medda, Athanasios Iossifides, Periklis ChatzimisiosStudy of Band Allocation Policies  in IEEE 802.11be Networks with Devices of Different CapabilitiesThe upcoming IEEE 802.11be standard aims to provide extremely high bitrates to support next generation use cases. Among the proposed features, multi-link operation (MLO) is probably the one contributing most towards this goal. MLO enables new types of devices, i.e., multi-link devices (MLDs), to transmit simultaneously over multiple frequency bands to achieve massive bitrates (reaching 40 Gbps) and, consequently, lower latency. However, the coexistence of MLDs with legacy devices in existing and future wireless local area network (WLAN) deployments has not yet been explicitly investigated. In this work, we investigate different band management policies over a three-band densely populated WLAN, allowing MLDs to use one or more bands for the access procedure and data transfer. We evaluate, via extensive simulations, the access delay of the devices and the network throughput with respect to the ratio of legacy devices and MLDs. We show that by using different band allocation policies for MLDs, several trade-offs regarding throughput and access delay arise that need careful consideration to avoid performance degradation.VT4
TD(23)05051Marc Amay, Joan BaseON HYBRID FREE-SPACE OPTIC-RADIO SYSTEMS AS ENABLERS OF 6G SERVICES OVER NON-TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS6G envisions new services such as holographic communications, virtual reality, digital twins, fiber on the sky, augmented reality to name a few of them. These new services will require a large capacity and so, they will be allocated in very high frequency bands, e.g., mmWave, TeraHertz, as well as the optical ones (i.e., fiber and optical wireless). Thus, it is foreseen that 6G will combine free-space optic (FSO) and radio frequency (RF) bands to offer more capacity, resilience to channel impairments and security (e.g. quantum and postquantum-based security). This paper provides analysis and results on the throughput, and outage probability for the capacity, resilient, and security architectures of hybrid opticalradio systems. For more accuracy, this paper assumes that the optical and radio links have atmospheric impairments. In the optical link there is a strong turbulence modelled using Gamma-Gamma distribution whereas in the radio one there is
a Nakagami-m fading.
TD(23)05052Conor Brennan, Kevin McGuinness and Fubin ZhangSite-specific Deep Learning Path Loss ModelsThis temporary document describes deep learning models based on convolutional neural networks applied to the problem of predicting EM wave propagation in two scenarios, specifically  over rural terrain and in urban areas.  The deep learning solution is based on the U-NET architecture. In both scenarios synthetic training data is generated based on a suitable deterministic model. This comprises path loss data computed over randomly generated 1D terrain profiles and 3D urban regions. In the first scenario a surface integral equation formulation, solved with the method of moments and accelerated using the Fast Far Field approximation is used to generate the training data.  In this scenario two networks are trained, one based on fractal profiles and one based on profiles generated using a Gaussian process. In the second scenario a ray launching tool is used to solve for field strength in a 1km by 1km environment containing random buildings. ML output is compared to measured data where available and good agreement is observed.WG1
TD(23)05053Eneko Iradier, Iñigo Bilbao, Jon Montalban, Pablo AngueiraAI-based Self-Interference Cancellation for In-Band Full-Duplex SystemsThe newest Radio Access Technologies (RATs) physical layers are already close to Shannon’s limit. System efficiency should be sought today towards a more efficient and flexible use of spectral resources. In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) techniques are one of these research avenues, where the same time-frequency resource is used to achieve a simultaneous full-duplex operation. However, IBFD nodes face the challenge of canceling the strong loopback signal leaked at the receiver modules. The cancellation requirements of the loopback component up to 80 dB is a complex task requiring a multifaceted approach involving isolation techniques, innovative antenna systems, and a combination of analog and digital cancellation algorithms. Our work analyzes a choice of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for robust loopback cancellation. This alternative seems highly suitable for this task because loopback channels can be considered natural signals with different degrees of deterministic features. Convolutional Neural Networks were explicitly designed to handle natural signals. CNNs can relate time and frequency symbols to extract the interference straightforwardly. Indeed, the results indicate that the proposed super-resolution CNN architecture can reduce the loopback channel estimation error in the order of tenths of dB when compared to state-of-the-art signal processing methods.WG2
TD(23)05054Krzysztof Skos, Josep Miquel Jornet, Pawel KulakowskiMagnetic field localization for in-body nano-communication medical systemsNano-machines circulating inside of a human body and gathering data about tissue conditions are a part of next generation medical diagnostic systems. However, in order to perform their functions properly, these devices should report not only their medical measurements, but also their positions. In this paper, a new localization approach for in-body nano-machines based on magnetic field is presented, taking advantage of a very good magnetic permeability for all human tissues. The whole proposed localization system is described, starting from 10×10 μm2 magnetometers to be integrated into the nano-machines, to a set of external wires generating the magnetic field. Mathematical equations for localization algorithm are also provided, assuming the nano-machines do not perform the calculations themselves, but they transmit their magnetic field measurements together with medical data outside of the body. The whole system is validated with computer simulations taking into account the measurement error of the magnetometers, the error induced by the Earth’s magnetic field and a human body model assuming different possible positions of nano-machines. The results show a very good system accuracy with localization error even below 1 cm.WG2,VT1
TD(23)05055Diego Dupleich, Alexander Ebert, Yanneck Völker-Schöneberg, Mate BobanLatest results on the characterization of propagation at (sub-)THz for ISAC in industrial applicationsIn this TD, we present the latest results on measurement campaigns for the characterization of propagation at (sub-)THz for channel modelling with the focus on ISAC applications in industrial scenarios.Sub-WG1.1,Sub-WG2
TD(23)05057Richard RuddPropagation modelling in the ITU-R: challenges and evolutionThis paper will give an overview of the propagation models developed within the ITU-R, their evolution (sometimes over several decades) and application in the often-controversial context of spectrum sharing and preparation for World Radio Conferences. Current issues and challenges will be discussed.WG1
TD(23)05059Thomas Feys, Xavier Mestre, François RottenbergSelf-Supervised Learning of Linear Precoders under Non-Linear PA Distortion for Energy-Efficient Massive MIMO SystemsMassive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems are typically designed under the assumption of linear power amplifiers (PAs). However, PAs are typically most energy efficient when operating close to their saturation point, where they cause non-linear distortion. Moreover, when using conventional precoders, this distortion coherently combines at the user locations, limiting performance. As such, when designing an energy-efficient massive MIMO system, this distortion has to be managed. In this work, we propose the use of a neural network (NN) to learn the mapping between the channel matrix and the precoding matrix, which maximizes the sum rate in the presence of this non-linear distortion. This is done for a third order polynomial PA model for both the single and multi-user case. By learning this mapping a significant increase in energy efficiency is achieved as compared to conventional precoders and even as compared to perfect digital pre-distortion (DPD), in the saturation regime.WG1
TD(23)05060Sara Cavallero, Nicol Sarcone Grande, Francesco Pase, Marco Giordani, Joseph Eichinger, Roberto Verdone, Michele ZorziA New Scheduler for URLLC in 5G NR IIoT Networks with Spatio-Temporal Traffic CorrelationsThis paper explores the issue of enabling Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) in view of the spatio-temporal correlations that characterize real 5th generation (5G) Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) networks. In this context, we consider a common Standalone Non-Public Network (SNPN) architecture as promoted by the 5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation (5G-ACIA), and propose a new variant of the 5G NR semi-persistent scheduler (SPS) to deal with uplink traffic correlations. A benchmark solution with a “smart” scheduler (SSPS) is compared with a more realistic adaptive approach (ASPS) that requires the scheduler to estimate some unknown network parameters. We demonstrate via simulations that the 1-ms latency requirement for URLLC is fulfilled in both solutions, at the expense of some complexity introduced in the management of the traffic. Finally, we provide numerical guidelines to dimension IIoT networks as a function of the use case, the number of machines in the factory, and considering both periodic and aperiodic traffic.VT3
TD(23)05061Yang Miao, Andre KokkelerInvestigating the Bistatic Sensing Capability of a Broadcasting 5G-NR BS and a True-Time-Delay Array UEThis paper derives the theoretical sensing capability of the 5G NR synchronization signal (SS) with a True-Time-Delay (TTD) array configuration at UE side. The TTD beamformer separates subcarrier beams into different angular locations for wide-beam coverage, and could be used for opportunistic sensing of environment target during BS downlink synchronization (before communication data transmission). The bistatic sensing performance is described by the derived bistatic AoA(Angle of Arrival)-delay/range-Doppler ambiguity function. The unambiguous region in the delay-range domain with a slowly fluctuating environment target is observed to vary as a function of the number of array elements and of the different SS configuration.Sub-WG2
TD(23)05062Rimvydas Aleksiejunas, Karolis StankeviciusApplication of XDraw algorithm for diffraction modeling using 3D vector building dataEstimation of diffraction loss is essential in wireless network planning and optimization, where detailed building data is available. In the past, a raster-based building rooftop height data extracted from building footprints has been used down to 1 meter resolution. For numerical evaluation of diffraction loss in case of raster-based input data, fast approximate algorithms are used such as R2, XDraw and their various implementations. Currently vector-based 3D city models with high level of detail attract a lot of interest. However, the analysis algorithms with vector data are slow and there are no efficient fast numerical methods. The aim of this work is to create fast numerical diffraction algorithm working with high accuracy 3D vector building data. In the proposed model, diffraction loss is estimated according to ITU-R P.526-15 recommendation using XDraw approximation for fast numerical processing. The algorithm behaves as $\mathcal{O}(N^2)$ over time by analyzing propagation in rings starting at antenna location and progressing towards the edges of analysis area. In the work, performance and accuracy of diffraction prediction model is compared against traditional raster-based XDraw algorithm. The results are calculated using buildings data from 3D BAG open dataset of Amsterdam city.WG1
TD(23)05063CheChia Kang, Xin Du, and Jun-ichi TakadaSynchronized Dynamic Channel Measurement and Motion Capture for Sub-THz Radio Channel Affected by Human PresenceSub-THz band’s broad bandwidth availability enables the next generation of mobile systems. Because of the useage of the high-gain antennas, the communication link is highly directive and depends on line-of-sight (LoS) channel. As one of the main challenges, the LoS channel can be easily shadowed. Due to the short wavelength, even a limb of a pedestrian can obstruct the the first Fresnel zone and cause deep fading occasionally. To develop the propagation model for the dynamic scenarios, a detailed geometric information (GI) recognition is needed. This paper presents a synchronized time-variant channel measurement and motion capture at 300 GHz for human body shadowing (HBS) scenario. The captured GI of human body represented as point clouds is used to generate screen models of human body. The comparison of the shadowing gain measurement result and the prediction based on double knife-edge diffraction (DKED) and uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) shows that the precision of the 3D model dominants the accuracy of shadow timing prediction. The results serve as foundation for future development of ray-tracing simulation for dynamic scenarios.WG1,Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)05065C. Gijón, T. Mahmoodi,  M. Toril, S. Luna-Ramírez, J. L. Bejarano-LuqueSLA-Driven Traffic Steering in B5G Systems with Network SlicingIn 5G and beyond wireless systems, Network Slicing (NS) feature will enable the coexistence of extremely different services by splitting the physical infrastructure into several logical slices tailored for a specific tenant or application. In sliced Radio Access Networks (RANs), an optimal traffic sharing among cells is key to guarantee Service Level Agreement (SLA) compliance while minimizing operation costs. The configuration of network functions leading to that optimal point may depend on the slice, claiming for slice-aware traffic steering strategies. This work presents the first data-driven algorithm for slice-aware traffic steering by tuning handover margins (a.k.a. mobility load balancing). The tuning process is driven by a novel indicator, derived from connection traces, showing the imbalance of SLA compliance among neighbor cells per slice. Performance assessment is carried out with a system-level simulator implementing a realistic sliced RAN offering services with different throughput, latency and reliability requirements. Results show that the proposed algorithm improves the overall SLA compliance by 9% in only 15 minutes of network activity compared to the case of not steering traffic, outperforming two legacy mobility load balancing approaches not driven by SLA.WG3
TD(23)05066A.Ziganshin, D.Czaniera, C.Schneider, R.ThomäGBSCM Channel Modeling for ISAC EvaluationCommunications and sensing are two adjacent branches of radiowaves application. Nowadays, networks demand both to be combined in a unified device sharing the same hardware and spectrum. Such a system is known as integrated sensing and communication (ISAC). Geometry-based stochastic channel model (GBSCM), such as 3GPP TR38.901, is a common solution for testing traditional communications. However, this model has to be extended to meet other requirements of ISAC. Sensing algorithms demand the existence of objects in the channel model to be located, tracked, and recognized. Such objects should be described deterministically by their position in space, velocity, and acceleration, which is impossible within the standard stochastic channel model. That approach attempts to combine the accuracy of deterministic methods and the performance of stochastic modeling methods. An essential point of such a hybrid channel model is scalability, as the level of determinism can be adjusted to find a tradeoff. A model with a focus on stochastic modeling was proposed and discussed in the paper. The limitations of such a model were discussed and shown by simulations.WG1,WG2,Sub-WG2
TD(23)05068Vukan Ninkovic, Dejan Vukobratovic, Adriano Pastore, Carles Anton-HaroA Weighted Autoencoder-Based Approach  to Downlink NOMA Constellation DesignEnd-to-end design of communication systems using deep autoencoders (AEs) is gaining attention due to its flexibility and excellent performance. Besides single-user transmission, AE-based design is recently explored in multi-user setup, e.g., for designing constellations for non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). In this paper, we further advance the design of AE-based downlink NOMA by introducing weighted loss function in the AE training. By changing the weight coefficients, one can flexibly tune the constellation design to balance error probability of different users, without relying on explicit information about their channel quality. Combined with the SICNet decoder, we demonstrate a significant improvement in achievable levels and flexible control of error probability of different users using the proposed weighted AE-based framework.WG2,HA1
TD(23)05069Andreas Fuchs, Lukas Wielandner, Daniel Neunteufel, Holger Arthaber, Klaus WitrisalWideband TDoA Positioning Exploiting RSS-Based ClusteringThe accuracy of radio-based time of flight (ToF)-positioning is heavily influenced by different restrictions/features depending on the technology used. Wideband (WB) and received signal strength (RSS) measurements for example are severely inhibited by a dense multipath (DM) channel. RSS based measurements have the disadvantage of a high, range-dependent uncertainty. This work proposes an approach for combining these two different measurement technologies, leading to a much more robust estimation combining the best of both technologies. We use RSS measurements to determine devices in the vicinity of each other. Based on those so-called ’clusters’ we get access to multiple independent realisations of the DM-channel for a single estimated position and an information gain. In this work, we propose an algorithmic approach for the information fusion of those two technologies and derive the corresponding Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and performance bounds. We evaluate these bounds in simulations, and validate results with real-world measurement data. The results show that a clustering approach can significantly improve performance. In our measurement scenario, halving the root-mean-square error ( RMSE ) from about 2 m for a non-clustererd approach to about 1 m for the proposed algorithm.WG2
TD(23)05070Davide Scazzoli, Francesco Linsalata, Dario Tagliaferri, Marouan Mizmizi, Damiano Badini, Maurizio Magarini, and Umberto SpagnoliniOn the Experimental Demonstration of Joint Communication and Sensing Waveform DesignIntegrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) is
recognised as one of the key enabling technologies of the upcoming sixth generation (6G) wireless network. The last research frontier of ISAC systems is the transmission of a single waveform through a completely shared hardware platform and an optimized frequency/time/space resources allocation that tunes the trade-off between the intended communication and sensing requirements. In this paper, we dwell on the experimental demonstration of the benefits of an ISAC waveform scheme that superposes onto the frequency-time domain both the legacy orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and a sensing signal that exploit Out-Of-Band (OOB) emission. This latter can be designed both with classical frequency-time chirp and with a delay-Doppler impulse. The experiments’ results show that the tested ISAC co-design is capable of accurately scanning and mapping an indoor environment and estimating the tangential speed of the moving targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that the interference of the superimposed sensing signal at the communication receiver is low enough that the impact on the communication performance is imperceptible
TD(23)05072Yann Maret, Mohsin Raza, Franck Legendre, Nik Bessis, Jean-Frédéric WagenImproving the performance of OLSRouting using PHY-IP information for realistic V2V/MANETsOptimized routing algorithms are of most importance for Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks. The routing protocol offers a route to the destination and adapts the path when the network changes. The popular routing algorithm, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSRv2) is evaluated in realistic real time emulations using the open source EMANE platform and the open Anglova scenario. The effect of fading is analyzed to account for the mobile wireless environment. OLSR estimates the quality of each link by processing received HELLO packets. OLSR has limited performance in scenario with fading and can lead to a poor completion ratio: 67% for the 24-node Anglova company 1 scenario. The proposed solution called OLSR+PHY uses the physical layer estimate of the Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) to drop the HELLO packets received with poor SINR. OLSR+PHY mitigates routes flapping and data packet loss. The completion ratio of acked-messages is improved to 79% while the Round Trip Time is only increased from 0.6 to 1s.WG3
TD(23)05073Dheeraj Raja Kumar, Carles Anton-Haro, Xavier MestreDeep Learning-based Receivers for MIMO Rate Splitting Multiple AccessIn this paper, we propose data-driven receivers for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) Rate Splitting Multiple Access (RSMA) system by using neural networks. The evolution of the neural network performance as the system size scales up in the underloaded regime has been thoroughly analyzed. Simulation results compare the performance of the proposed schemes against that of the conventional and exhaustive search receiver benchmarks.WG2
TD(23)05074Fred Wagen and Yann MaretAn analysis of Goodput and Delivery Ratio using simple simulations of a realistic MANET: Anglova.netMulti-user system level simulations and emulations is increasingly important to optimize the use of a given radio spectrum resource.
From the users perspective the optimization depends on the service or application. Typically either the highest possible Goodput (useful data user bit rate) is desired or, given a transmitted data rate, the highest possible Packet Delivery Ratio (or lowest Packet Error Rate) is desired. Latency can also be an important requirement. How to optimize and trade-off these metrics in a time varying environment is particularly complex in Vehicular to Vehicular (V2V) or MANET communication system due to the required routing, scheduling and flow control.
This contribution considers a rather simple simulation of a realistic MANET (Anglova.net) to provide an analysis of Goodput and Delivery Ratio for several routing metrics.
The Goodput-Delivery Ratio product is nearly optimal if the shortest path routes are based on the MANET Graph weighted by the inverse of the SINR. Using SINR is better than using the classical Link Quality which does not distinguish good links from very good and thus more stable links. The routes can be kept for 4 to even 20s in the realistic Anglova.net scenario. These observations hold for three propagation models (Holm, Longley-Rice, Bullington) and two fading models (abstract PHY, no fading+Rayleigh). Emulation results and measurements remain to be conducted to (dis)prove these conclusions.
TD(23)05075Enrico M. Vitucci, Matteo Albani, Silvi Kodra, Marina Barbiroli and Vittorio Degli-EspostiAn Efficient Ray-Based Modeling Approach for Scattering from Reconfigurable Intelligent SurfacesReconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS), which can be implemented using metasurface technology or reflect/transmit antenna array technology, have garnered significant attention in research studies focused on both their technological aspects and potential applications. While various modeling approaches have been proposed – ranging from electromagnetic simulations and analytical integral formulations to over-simplified approaches based on scattering matrix theory – there remains a great need for efficient and electromagnetically-consistent macroscopic models that can accurately simulate scattering from RISs, particularly for realistic simulations of RIS-based wireless networks.
Building on previous work based on the a characterization of the RIS through a surface impedance  (or “spatial modulation”) function and a few parameters, in the present paper we propose a fully ray-based approach for the computation of the re-radiated field that can be easily embedded in efficient, forward ray tracing (also known as “ray launching”) models.
We validate the proposed model by comparison to well established methods available in the literature. Results show that, although the considered method is based on a completely different formulation and is much more efficient than integral formulation methods, results are almost indistinguishable in a number of benchmark cases.
TD(23)05076Lutfi Samara, Mate Boban, Thomas KürnerOn the Capacity of Directional Terahertz LinksWe investigate the potential capacity gains acquired by adopting an adaptive transmit power and rate approach when communicating in the terahertz (THz) band considering the peculiarities of the channel. Given the high path loss experienced at the THz band, highly directive communication links using high directional antennas are used, hence making antenna alignment a critical aspect to consider. Therefore, we highlight the impact of antenna misalignment on the potential gains brought by the adaptive power and rate schemes. Analytical expressions are provided taking into account the joint effects of the channel and antenna misalignment fading. The results confirm potential capacity gains of the adaptive power and rate scheme in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime and when the antenna alignment error variance is high.WG2
TD(23)05077Silvi Kodra, Marina Barbiroli, Enrico Vitucci, Franco Fuschini, Vittorio Degli EspostiMeasurement based evaluation of outdoor to indoor and in-building losses at mm-wavesThe fulfilment of requirements of 5G systems and beyond, brings the need for the deployment of mm-frequencies. Knowledge of the propagation channel characteristics is crucial for the correct design of wireless systems. As such, the impact of buildings on signal propagation, thus, Outdoor to Indoor and through floors attenuation, needs to be understood and carefully characterized at mm waves. To this aim, two measurement campaigns at 28 and 38 GHz were carried out to investigate the aforementioned issues. In order to evaluate Outdoor to Indoor losses, two different buildings were considered: the first being an old residential building and the second a modern office building. It was observed from the measurements that losses increase with around 20 dB when moving 5 meters inside the building with respect to the external illuminated wall. Measurements have also been compared with the 3GPP TR 138 901 model, which applies for frequencies up to 100 GHz. The other campaign, aiming to evaluate the propagation losses through building floors at 27 and 38 GHz, was conducted in four different buildings with different floor construction. The observed trend is that more modern the construction techniques become, more difficult it is for signals to propagate through the floors, due to the presence of metallic structures and reinforced concrete. The floor construction technique strongly affects the propagation through floors, in a such way that for most of the considered buildings it is impossible for the signal to penetrate after one floor. This brings the need for standardizations that accurately account for the through floor propagation at mm-wave frequencies.Sub-WG1.1
TD(23)05078Rui R. Paulo and Fernando J. VelezImpact of the Two-Slope Path Loss Model in the Service Quality of 4G and 5G Small CellsTogether with cell-free networks, small cells enable ultra-dense networks in 5G. Although small cell networks will be
part of heterogeneous networks, the comparison of service quality of urban micro (UMi) small cells between 4G and 5G second phase scenarios is still of great relevance. Usage of video (VID), is considered. Quality of service is determined by considering a packet loss ratio (PLR) lower than 2%, for different sub-6 GHz frequency bands. The aim is to compare the system capacity between 4G and 5G New Radio (NR) enhanced mobile broadband in different bands. ITU defined two UMi cell scenarios for UMi cells that consider two-slope (TS) path loss models (PLMs). In this work, we have included TS-PLMs into the LTE-Sim (4G) and 5G-airsimulator. The service quality and system performance bands have then been evaluated. Results shows that it is possible to support more user terminals (UTs) with 5G NR (up to 26 UTs) than with 4G (10 UTs only). When PLR<2%, the average delay decreases and the average goodput increases when 5G is considered. The maximum average goodput also increases with 5G NR.
TD(23)05083Malek Ali, Roman Marsalek, Jan Bolcek, Radim Zedka, Josef Vychodil, Ladislav Polak, Golsa GhiaasiTarget detection methods from 2D delay-Doppler OTFS snapshotsBesides information sharing, the received wireless communication signals can be used to gather knowledge about the transmitting devices, about properties of the surrounding environment, or to track users in the monitored area. This temporary document presents our work in progress, focused on the application of selected machine learning and signal processing methods to estimate the number of targets, i.e., persons, from delay-Doppler images, and discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various approaches including machine learning or mathematical morphology methods.Sub-WG2,VT3
TD(23)05084Francesca Conserva, Nicol Sarcone Grande, Marco Skocaj, Roberto VerdoneA Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of 5G Network Latency: a Data-Driven ApproachThe advent of novel 5G services and applications with binding latency requirements and guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) hastened the need to incorporate autonomous and proactive decision-making in network management procedures.
The objective of our study is to provide a thorough analysis of latency within 5G networks by utilizing real-world network data that is accessible to mobile network operators (MNOs). In particular, we present an analytical formulation of the user-plane latency as a Hypoexponential distribution, which is validated by means of a comparative analysis with empirical measurements. We test our framework using data gathered from scenarios of vehicular mobility, dense-urban traffic, and social gathering events.